The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
January 2006

Flourensia cernua
Brewster Co., TX
Spjut 5181, Nov 1978

Flourensia cernua
Hidalgo Co., NMm between I-10 and Hachita
Single dominant shrub, Nov 2007

Mata R., R. Bye, E. Linares, M. Macias, I. Rivero-Cruz, O. Perez and B. N. Timmermann. 2003. Phytotoxic compounds from Flourensia cernua.  Phytochemistry 64(1): 285291.  Bioassay-directed fractionation of a CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Flourensia cernua led to the isolation of three phytotoxic compounds, namely, dehydroflourensic acid (1), flourensadiol (2) and methyl orsellinate (3). Dehydroflourensic acid is a new natural product whose structure was established by spectral means. In addition, the known flavonoid ermanin and seven hitherto unknown gamma-lactones were obtained, these being tetracosan-4-olide, pentacosan-4-olide, hexacosan-4-olide, heptacosan-4-olide, octacosan-4-olide, nonacosan-4-olide, and triacontan-4-olide. Compounds 1-3 caused significant inhibition of radicle growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Echinochloa crus-galli, interacted with bovine-brain calmodulin and inhibited the activation of the calmodulin-dependent enzyme cAMP phosphodiesterase.

Molina-Salinas G. M., M. C. Ramos-Guerra, J. Vargas-Villarreal, B. D. Mata-Cardenas, P. Becerril-Montes and S. Said-Fernandez.  2006. Bactericidal activity of organic extracts from Flourensia cernua DC against strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  Arch Med Res. 37(1): 4549.  BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a chronic disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of this species underscores the need for novel effective drugs against resistant mycobacteria as first-line antituberculosis medications. METHODS: Crude aqueous (obtained by decoction, in accordance with the traditional mode of preparation), methanol, acetone, and hexane extracts from aerial parts of Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Marrubium vulgare L., Mentha spicata L., and Flourensia cernua DC were assessed for their ability to either inhibit the growth of or kill M. tuberculosis strains H37Rv and CIBIN:UMF:15:99, the former being sensitive to, and the latter resistant to, streptomycin, isoniazide, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. These five plant species are used in Mexico to treat respiratory disorders. RESULTS: Flourensia cernua was the uniquely active plant among those evaluated. Its hexane and acetone extracts not only inhibited the growth of but killed M. tuberculosis. The hexane extract showed a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 and 25 microg/mL against sensitive and resistant strains, respectively; the acetone extract was active against only CIBIN:UMF:15:99 (MIC = 100 microg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: The hexane extract from F. cernua leaves could be an important source of bactericidal compounds against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis.

Tellez M., R. Estell, E. Fredrickson, J. Powell, D. Wedge, K. Schrader and M. Kobaisy.  2001. Extracts of Flourensia cernua (L): volatile constituents and antifungal, antialgal, and antitermite bioactivities.  J. Chem. Ecol. 27(11): 22632273.  The chemical components of tarbush (Flourensia cernua) leaves were fractionated by extracting successively with hexanes, diethyl ether, and ethanol. Volatile profiles of each fraction were identified by using GC-MS. The hexanes fraction contained mostly monoterpenoids, while the ethanol fraction volatiles were primarily sesquiterpenoids. Crude fractions were tested for activity against fungi, algae, and termites. Application of as little as 1 microg of the essential oil from the hexanes fraction was sufficient to provide visible antifungal activity in bioautography assays. The diethyl ether fraction showed selective activity against the cyanobacterium responsible for the 2-methylisoborneol-induced off-flavor sometimes associated with catfish farming operations. All three fractions exhibited a high degree of antitermite activity.

Uriburu M. L., J. R. de la Fuente, J. Palermo, R. R. Gil, and V. E. Sosa.  2004. Constituents of two Flourensia species.  Phytochemistry 65(14): 20392043. The MeOH extract of aerial parts of Flourensia riparia Grisebach (Asteraceae) afforded a sesquiterpene lactone, 4beta-hydroxy-4,10alpha-dimethyl-7alphaH,8alphaH-eudesman-11-ene-8,12-olide, together with septuplinolide, its isomer at positions C-5 and C-10. In addition, known flavonoids, p-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives, carabrone and isoalantolactone were identified. Three known flavonoids and a benzofuran were isolated from Flourensia campestris Wedd.