The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
August 2006

Fragaria chiloensis
Oregon Dunes along the coast
near Coos Bay; June 1977



Aaby K., G. Skrede and R. E. Wrolstad. 2005. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities in flesh and achenes of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa).  High performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and coulometric array detectors were used to characterize and quantify phenolic compounds in achenes and flesh of ripe strawberries (cv Totem and Puget Reliance). Total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanins were measured and antioxidant activities were evaluated by the FRAP and the ORAC assays. Strawberries contained 1% achenes on a fresh weight basis; however, they contributed to about 11% of total phenolics and 14% of antioxidant activities in strawberries. Ellagic acid, ellagic acid glycosides, and ellagitannins were the main contributors to the antioxidant activities of achenes. The major anthocyanin in flesh was pelargonidin-3-glucoside, whereas achenes consisted of nearly equal amounts of cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of strawberry achenes were reduced by industrial processing. However, the levels were still high and strawberry waste byproduct could thus be a possible source of nutraceuticals or natural antioxidants.

Olsson M. E., C. S. Andersson, S. Oredsson, R. H. Berglund and K. E. Gustavsson.  2006. Antioxidant levels and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by extracts from organically and conventionally cultivated strawberries.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(4): 12481255. The effects of extracts from five cultivars of strawberries on the proliferation of colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7 were investigated, and possible correlations with the levels of several antioxidants were analyzed. In addition, the effects of organic cultivation compared to conventional cultivation on the content of antioxidants in the strawberries and strawberry extracts on the cancer cell proliferation were investigated. The ratio of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate was significantly higher in the organically cultivated strawberries. The strawberry extracts decreased the proliferation of both HT29 cells and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent way. The inhibitory effect for the highest concentration of the extracts was in the range of 41-63% (average 53%) inhibition compared to controls for the HT29 cells and 26-56% (average 43%) for MCF-7 cells. The extracts from organically grown strawberries had a higher antiproliferative activity for both cell types at the highest concentration than the conventionally grown, and this might indicate a higher content of secondary metabolites with anticarcinogenic properties in the organically grown strawberries. For HT29 cells, there was a negative correlation at the highest extract concentration between the content of ascorbate or vitamin C and cancer cell proliferation, whereas for MCF-7 cells, a high ratio of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate correlated with a higher inhibition of cell proliferation at the second highest concentration. The significance of the effect of ascorbate on cancer cell proliferation might lie in a synergistic action with other compounds.