The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
May 2005, December 2006, Dec 2013

Condea (Hyptis) emoryi
Imperial Co., CA
Mar 2005

β-sitosterol and betulina acid were reportedly isolated from this species (Hartwell 1976).

Condea (Hyptis) alba

Condea (Hyptis) tomentosa


Araujo da, E. C., M. A. Lima, R. C. Montenegro, M. Nogueira, L. V. Costa-Lotufo, C. Pessoa, M. O. de Moraes and E. R. Silveira.  2006. Cytotoxic abietane diterpenes from Hyptis martiusii Benth.  Z. Naturforsch. [C]. 61(3-4): 177183. From roots of Hyptis martiusii Benth. two tanshinone diterpenes were isolated, the new 7beta-hydroxy-11,14-dioxoabieta-8,12-diene (1) in addition to the known 7alpha-acetoxy-12-hydroxy-11,14-dioxoabieta-8,12-diene (7alpha-acetoxyroyleanone) (2). Structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic means. The cytotoxic activity against five cancer cell lines was evaluated. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed considerable cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 3.1 to 11.5 microg/ml and 0.9 to 7.6 microg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxic activity seemed to be related to inhibition of DNA synthesis, as revealed by the reduction of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and induction of apoptosis, as indicated by the acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay and morphological changes after 24 h of incubation in leukemic cells.

Chukwujekwu J. C., P. Smith, P. H. Coombes, D. A. Mulholland and J. van Staden. 2005. Antiplasmodial diterpenoid from the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens.  J. Ethnopharmacol. 102(2): 295297.  Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens, widely used in Traditional Medicine, has led to the isolation of an abietane-type diterpenoid endoperoxide, 13 alpha-epi-dioxiabiet-8(14)-en-18-ol, displaying high antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 0.1 microg/ml).

Facey P. C., R. B. Porter, P. B. Reese and L. A. Williams.  2005. Biological activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata Jacq.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 53(12): 47744777. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata Jacq. was elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The oil was dominated by the sesquiterpenoids cadina-4,10(15)-dien-3-one (15.1%) (1) and aromadendr-1(10)-en-9-one (squamulosone) (30.7%) (2). The oil exhibited chemosterilant activities against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus Canest., and toxic action against adult Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer, the most destructive pest of sweet potato (Ipomoea species).

Fragoso-Serrano, M., S. Gibbons and R. Pereda-Miranda.  Anti-staphylococcal and cytotoxic compounds from Hyptis pectinata.  2005. Planta Med.71(3): 278280.  Bioassay-guided fractionation of a CHCl (3) extract prepared from the Mexican medicinal plant Hyptis pectinata led to the isolation of four pyrones, pectinolides A-C ( 1-3) and H ( 4). Activity was tracked using cultured KB cells. Multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to pectinolide H ( 4; KB > 20 microg/mL) in the concentration range of 32-64 microg/mL. The absolute stereochemistry of this new compound was established as 5 S-[(4 S-acetyloxy)-(1 S-hydroxy)-2 Z-octenyl]-2(5 H)-furanone on the basis of spectral, chiroptical data and chemical correlation with pectinolide A ( 1). Mosher ester derivatives were used with pectinolide B ( 2) for confirmation of the 3'-( S) absolute stereochemistry on the side chain chiral center of pectinolides A-C.

Grassi P, Urias Reyes TS, Sosa S, Tubaro A, Hofer O, Zitterl-Eglseer K.  2006.  Anti-inflammatory activity of two diterpenes of Hyptis suaveolens from El Salvador.  Z. Naturforsch. [C]. 2006 61(3-4):16570.  Separation and isolation of the two main compounds suaveolol and methyl suaveolate from leaves of chichinguaste (Hyptis suaveolens Poit., Lamiaceae) could be achieved by means of repeated column chromatography and repeated preparative thin layer chromatography. Their chemical structures were approved by MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 2D-NMR experiments. The anti-inflammatory activity of the two compounds was tested for the first time as inhibition of croton oil-induced dermatitis of the mouse ear. Suaveolol and methyl suaveolate showed nearly the same dose-dependent topical anti-inflammatory activity, only two to three times lower than that of the reference drug indomethacin. The anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds could contribute to the antiphlogistic activity of extracts of Hyptis species and confirm the rational use of Hyptis suaveolens extracts in dermatological diseases.

Harley, R. M. and J. F. B. Pastore. 2012. A generic revision and new combinations in the Hyptidinae (Lamiaceae), based on molecular and morphological evidence. Phytotaxa 58: 155. An earlier molecular study demonstrated the monophyly of the Hyptidinae and most of the genera within it. However, the largest genus, Hyptis, is paraphyletic and all other genera seem to be derived from a Hyptis ancestor. Most of the different lineages which comprise Hyptis are already established sections, some of which are now raised to generic rank, augmenting the subtribe to 19 genera and with a greatly reduced but monophyletic Hyptis, in which the genus Peltodon is included as a section. The sections Mesosphaeria and Polydesmia are also shown not to be monophyletic, making it necessary to reassign some species from the former to the latter, and then raising the two sections to generic rank as Mesosphaerum and Cantinoa respectively, the latter a new genus name. A new genus Oocephalus is also created from two former subsections of Hyptis sect. Polydesmia. The genus Condea, formed from three former sections of Hyptis, is itself divided into two sections. A key to all recognized genera is included, together with a generic conspectus, with brief distributional data, differentiating the new genera and listing their component species. The necessary nomenclatural changes comprise 142 new combinations, 30 new or replacement lectotypifications, four neotypes, 23 new synonymies, eight stat. nov., six newly coined generic names, five new epitypes and four new names.

Kingston, D. G.,  M. M. Rao and W. V. Zucker.  1979.  Plant anticancer agents. IX. Constituents of Hyptis tomentosa. J. Nat. Prod. 42: 496499.

Melo, G. B., R. L. Silva, V. A. Melo, A. R. Antoniolli, P. R. Michellone, S. Zucoloto, M. E. Souza, M. C. Gomes, R. B. Correia and O. D.  Castro-E-Silva. 2006. Proliferative effect of the aqueous extract of Hyptis pectinata on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats.  Acta Cir. Bras. 21:3336.  This study was carried out to assess the effects of the aqueous extract of Hyptis pectinata leaves on liver regeneration and on serum enzymes (AST, ALT and gamma-GT) after 67% partial hepatectomy in rats. METHODS: AST, ALT and gamma-GT, were determined by conventional procedures using a spectrophotometer (Model E2250-CELM). Liver regeneration was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). RESULTS:Oral pretreatment during 4 days at 100 mg/kg increased liver regeneration index. At 200 mg/kg, AST level was statistically decreased in comparison to the group submited to distilled water administration. The other enzymes assessed disclosed no difference when all groups were compared. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the aqueous extract of Hyptis pectinata leaves contains some biological active principles that stimulate liver regeneration at 100 mg/kg and cause slight hepatic protection at 200 mg/kg.