©The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
May 2004, Dec. 2005, Aug 2006, Jan 2013, Apr 2014, June 2014


Salix alaxensis
Kenai Peninsula,
Palmer Creek, AK
Spjut & Marin 15398,
July 2003


Salix babylonica
Kern River, Bakersfield, CA
Rancho Rio Stable
27 May 2006




Salix barclayi
Kenai Peninsula,
Palmer Creek, AK
Spjut & Marin 15400,
July 2003


 Salix boothii

California. Modoc NF: Warner Mts., southern slopes of Mt Bidwell along FR 2; 41º56.380, 120º10.639, 6200-6900 ft.  Mixed aspen, sagebrush and willow communities on steep south-west facing rocky slopes; white fir frequent with mountain mahogany, antelope-bush, snow-berry, snow-bush and wooly mule ears, and with high density (100%) stands of Veratrum californicum filling in the open areas between most of the woody flora.


 Salix boothii
Sierra Nevada, Butte Co., CA. Butte Creek, White fir-Jeffrey pine-lodgepole pine forest, 6,000 ft; 40
º05.621N , 121º24.005W
July 11, 2011


Salix commutata
Kenai Peninsula,
Palmer Creek, AK
Spjut & Marin 15416,
July 2003


 Salix eastwoodiae
Marble Mts. Wilderness, CA
Shoreline, One-mile Lake
July 2004


Salix eriocephala

Nevada. Humboldt-Toiyabe NF: Mountain City District: west slopes of Independence Range, Jack Creek along FR Rd 732; 41º31.039, 116º03.419, 6500 ft.  Riparian aspen (75%)-willow (75%)-elderberry (25%) community along creek bordered by open meadows with sedges, grasses, Dasiphora fruticosa, and bordered by sagebrush scrub on drier slopes. Veratrum californicum dominant along willows.



Salix exigua
Walker River,
near Bridgeport, CA
Spjut 15400, June 2002


 Salix geyeriana
. Humboldt-Toiyabe NF: Jarbidge District: Pole Creek along FR Rd 074 at jct with road to Robinson Creek and Robinson Hole, just south of campground; 41º53.101, 115º14.633, 8113 ft.  Riparian meadow area with aspen-willow along creek.  Meadows with dominant Veratrum, snowberry shrubs, and sedges (Carex spp.), within region of drier subalpine scrub of sagebrush, Eriogonum and subalpine fir forest. 25 July 2010


Salix gooddingii
Kern Co., CA.
Tehachapi Mts., Tejon Ranch,
CNPS Chapter Field Trip
28 Mar 2009


Salix gooddingii
Kern Co., CA.
Piute Mts., near Stevenson Peak, Cattani Ranch,
CNPS Chapter Field Trip
5 May 2010

 Salix hookeriana
Oregon, Coast, near Coos Bay, May 1977



Salix lasiandra
Kern River Canyon
Kern River, 19 Apr 2012


Salix lasiandra
Tehachapi Mts, Tejon Ranch, CNPS Chapter Field Trip, 30 June 2012



Salix lasiandra
Jarbidge, NV
June 2005


Salix lasiolepis
Clam Beach,
Humboldt Co., CA
Spjut 14891, July 2002


Salix lasiolepis
California, Kern Co.
Tehachapi Mts., above Bear Valley Springs
June 2012


Salix lemmonii
California. Modoc NF: Central Warner Mts., 1.8 miles south of Benton Meadow along east side of FR 30 (Joseph Creek Springs Rd); 41º40.325, 120º18.438, 7000-7200 ft.  Willow-sagebrush-snowberry riparian community in high density Veratrum californicum meadow surrounded by  white fir-lodgepole pine-western white pine-aspen (at margin) forest



Salix lucida
Marble Mts. Wilderness, CA
Mixed fir and pine forest
5600 ft, July 2006


Salix melanopsis
Marble Mts. Wilderness, CA
Mixed fir and pine forest
5600 ft, July 2006



Salix phylicifolia
Idaho: North-central, Clearwater Natl. For., John Gulch,
46º31.869, 115º39.004, elev. 3,900 ft, mosaic of meadows and forests along streams with frequent patches of Veratrum californicum,  forest of Englemann spruce, grand fir, western red cedar, subalpine fir. 27 July 2011 

Salix ovalifolia
Kenai Peninsula,
Alpine slopes above
Palmer Creek, AK
Spjut & Marin 15399,
July 2003


Salix reticulata
Kenai Peninsula,
Palmer Creek, AK
Spjut & Marin 15409,
July 2003




Salix rotundifolia
Kenai Peninsula,
Alpine meadows above Palmer Creek, AK
Spjut & Marin 15470,
July 2003


Salix scouleriana
Kern Co., California. S Sierra Nevada, Greenhorn Mts., Mixed conifer forest, Rancheria Road near junction with Hwy 155. CNPS Chapter Field Trip
May 25, 2013

Salix sitchensis
Humboldt County,
mouth of Mad River, CA
Spjut 14862, July 2002


Salix sitchensis
Near  Astoria, Oregon,
7 July 2010


Salix longipes

Trees and Shrubs of Kern County (Jan 2013, Apr 2014)

     Salix. Shrubs or trees; shrubs often clonal by branch fragmentation, layering, rhizomes or by root shoots; buds with 1-scale, with distinct margins that overlap in subgenus Protitea (S. bonplandiana, S.  gooddingii, S. laevigata in Kern Co.), or scale margins united in most species (margins appearing indistinct); leaves alternate, deciduous, pinnately veined, often variable in shape on the same plant, larger ones generally near base of branch in contrast to “juvenile” ones appearing at ends of shoots, and on catkin bearing shoots, all of which can vary in size and hairiness; however, degree of glossiness on upper (adaxial) surface often helpful to distinguish species; stipules often rudimentary on early leaves, appearing like leafy ear-lobes on later leaves; flowers in cylindrical masses resembling caterpillars called catkins, appearing before, with or after leaves, male and female catkins on separate plants, spreading to erect, without distinct sepals and petals (perianth), each flower with a single bract that is generally persistent in female flowers, additional bracts below, perianth modified into a nectary between floral axis and stamens or pistils; stamens most often two, as many as 10; pistils one per flower, styles 2, stigmas 2;  fruit a loculicidal capsule, or a capsiconum when the whole fruiting catkin disperses before the capsules open; ~450 spp., 113 in North America and 12 in Kern County,  mostly in wet soil.  Species difficult to identify due to much morphological variation relating to environmental differences, hybridization, and introgression; an interactive key by Argus requiring the software "Intkey" (Pankhurst 1991) is available online. Salicin, an ingredient of aspirin, first discovered from bark of Salix. Other uses include preventing soil erosion, reducing pollutants, and providing cover for wildlife. 

     The geographical distribution of willow species in Kern County as reported by Twisselmann is based on the key in Munz. Emphasis in that key was on whether the leaves are toothed or not along margins, and whether the undersurfaces of leaves are hairy or not at maturity.  Moe's key follows Munz.   Descriptions by Argus indicate species are highly variable in leaf margins and pubescence.  It is not clear how these key differences affect the overall species distributions reported.  CCH was also consulted (Jul 2012, and the identifications in which annotations are apparent but not noted would appear to reflect the newer treatments, and also include unpublished interpretations.  For example, most S. bonplandiana specimens from Kern County were collected by Twisselmann, but this neotropical species, which had been known only in Arizona (FNA), was considered as only possibly occurring in southern California (JM2).

       The following key and descriptions are based largely on data from G. W. Argus in JM1, FNA, and JM2; however, Abrams, Munz, Cronquist et al. for the Pacific Northwest and Intermountain floras were also consulted.  Additionally, as noted above, Salix bonplandiana is included based on CCH specimens identified by this name; however, it should be noted that this species has been included under S. laevigata, while the same collection numbers in CCH are occasionally identified S. lasiandra.

     The key presented below also attempts to include as many features as considered helpful to species identification; thus, when many features are mentioned, exceptions should be kept in mind allowing for the plurality to rule. Bracketed key features are added in some dichotomies for additional character features of species Sections as quoted from Dorn (2010).  In the field, one should note habit of the plant, and look for buds, stipules on older leafy branches, and for glands along petiole and leaf base margins.

Key to Salix

1. Leaves widest above the mid region and not more than 5× longer
than wide, often more gradually tapered to base than to apex............................ 2

1. Leaves widest at or below the mid region, >2× longer than wide,
tapered more gradually to apex than to base, or equally tapered,
or if wider above mid region than >5× longer than wide.................................... 4


2. Leaves ± similarly green on both surfaces; catkins borne on short
leafy shoots; pistillate bracts deciduous...................................... Salix exigua–7

2.  Leaves dark green above, glaucous below; catkins on short leafless
peduncles; pistillate bracts persistent.................................................................. 3


3. Fresh twig bark with a skunk odor; lateral (pinnate) veins of leaves
spreading >60°, straight  and forking midway; leaves often widest
in upper third, rounded to shortly tapered to apex, 2–3.9× longer than
wide; catkins short cylindrical, ovoid to ellipsoid, 2–4× longer than
wide; ovary hairy; [“leaves glaucous or glaucescent on underside;
capsules usually with a long tapering beak which forms a full curl or
more after dehiscence, pubescent; stipe often exceeding subtending
bract”]; conifer forest region in Kern Co.............. ................... Salix scouleriana

3. Fresh twig bark lacking skunk odor; lateral leaf veins spreading
45–60°, curving upwards and forking near margin; leaves often
widest nearer mid region or below the upper third, gradually
or abruptly tapering to apex, >4× longer than wide; catkins long
cylindrical, often >4× longer than wide; ovary glabrous; [“primary
buds short and plump, barely longer than wide; leaves often shiny
green on upperside, glaucous on underside; aments often precocious;
capsules mostly glabrous; floral bracts mostly brown, rarely
brownish-black, mostly obovate to oval (oblong) and fringed with
dense, relatively straight untangled hairs which often conspicuously
exceed bract tip”]; widely distributed in the Sierra Nevada region
of Kern Co., oak and pinyon-juniper woodlands, and pine
forests........ ........... ....................................................................... Salix lasiolepis


4. Petioles with dark pimple-like glands near blade or base of leaf margins;
stipule and leaf blade margins glandular; catkins on leafy shoots;
stamens 3–6................................... ........... ........... ............................................. 5

4. Petioles or margins of leaf bases without such glands (sometimes present
in S. babylonica); catkins attached to stems or on leafy shoots;
stamens 2............... ............................................... ............................................. 6


5. Leaves darker green above than below, 3–6 (-10)× longer than wide,
generally 15–30 (-35) mm wide; leaf-like stipules tardily dehiscent with
glandular tipped marginal teeth; margins of bud-scale fused............. Salix lasiandra

5. Leaves similar in color on both surfaces, 5–7 (-12)× longer than
wide, generally 7–14 (-20) mm wide; leaf-like stipules
with stalked glands along upper surface incised margins, soon
deciduous; margins of bud-scale not fused, distinct and
overlapping........................ ....................... ........... ..................... Salix gooddingii


6. Leaves long and narrow, often >10× longer than wide, 2–8 mm wide,
similar in color on both surfaces.......................................................................... 7

6. Leaves 2–7 (-9)× longer than wide, 6–45 mm wide, often paler green
to white or glaucous below....................... ........... ............................................. 8


7. Cultivated trees with weeping branches and strongly sickle-shaped
leaves.................................................................. ..................... Salix babylonica

7. Native clonal shrubs 2–4 m high, or trees to 5 (-17) m; leaves mostly
straight or slightly sickle-shaped, marrow, often grass-like, generally
channeled to boat-shaped; stipules vestigial or absent; common in the
Valley Region, occasional in the Sierra Nevada region..................... Salix exigua

......   Hairs on twigs appressed to surface; ovary lacking hairs.................. var. exigua

  ....   Hairs on twigs spreading; ovary white hairy................................ var. hindsiana


8. Winter buds sharply pointed; bud-scale margins evident (overlapping);
leaves sword shaped on twigs, elliptical on catkin shoots; upper surface
of twig leaves with 10–20 pairs of lateral veins and closely parallel
cross connecting veins; stipules round................................................................ 9

8. Winter buds blunt tipped; bud-scale margins united, thus not evident;
leaves shaped similarly on vegetative and catkin shoots, ±elliptical;
upper leaf surfaces with  <10 pairs of secondary lateral veins,
the veins often strongly arcuate with  reticulate veins connecting
main lateral veins; stipules minute or short triangular (S. lutea)........................... 11


9.   Leaves similarly green on both surfaces...................................... Salix gooddingii

9.   Leaves green above, glaucous (blue green) below.............................................. 10


10.  Leaves < longer than wide,  densely hairy below when young;
pistillate bracts deciduous after flowering; capsules 2–4×
longer than wide....................................... ........... ....................... Salix laevigata

10.  Leaves >5× longer than wide, with few or no hairs; pistialate
bracts persistent after flowering; capsules 1–2× longer
than wide.................................................. .......................... Salix bonplandiana


11. Catkins globose or nearly so, male 0.7–1.0 (-1.5) cm; female 1–2.5 cm;
stipules none; Kern Plateau......................................................... Salix geyeriana

11. Catkins cylindric; stipules usually developing with later leaves............................. 12


12. Catkin shoots usually leafy, 3–15 mm;  leaves short petioled, <9 mm;
blades often long tapered to petiole, glossy dark green above, shaggy
hairy below, curving downwards along blade from base to
apex, and more so near apex, often toothed along margins...... Salix melanopsis

12. Catkins borne directly on twigs, or on short leafy or leafless shoots
< 8 mm; plants variable in the other features........ ........................................... 13


13.  Petioles silky hairy; leaf blades narrowly elliptic to linear.......... Salix sessilifolia

13.  Petioles not silky; leaf blades usually broad elliptic........................................... 14


14. Tertiary veins obscure on upper leaf surface; leaf margins plane.......... Salix lutea

14. Tertiary veins conspicuous on upper leaf surface; leaves rolled under
along margins (revolute) or plane..................................................................... 15


15.. Twigs usually bald (glabrous); leaves generally elliptical—widest near
mid region,
margins flat to slightly rolled under (revolute): stipules
minute, deciduous; catkins on short leafy branches (peduncles);
ovary silky,
tapering to a long curly beak in fruit; mostly above
2000 m, Kern 
Plateau, Piute Mts... ....................... ................... Salix lemmonii

15. Twigs usually with “downy” hairs; leaves generally wider above mid region, 
margins slightly to strongly revolute;
stipules occasionally leaf-like;
catkins sessile on twigs or on short naked peduncles;
ovary hairless;
widely distributed, mostly below 2000 m ..................................... Salix lasiolepis


*Salix babylonica Linnaeus (1753), thought to be native to China, includes hybrids under various names, S. x sepulcralis (Simonkai), which is from Europe,  is the most widespread.  Commonly planted, generally recognized by the tree habit and weeping branches with strongly sickle-shaped leaves.

Salix bonplandiana Kunth 1817 [Includes Salix laevigata Bebb 1874?]. Tree to 15 m, trunk 20–45 cm diam, bark irregularly furrowed; branchlets weak, bending or drooping, yellow with reddish or brownish streaks, aging yellowish brown; leaves appearing with the catkins, flaccid, spreading to drooping, sword-shaped to narrowly long elliptic, tapered to acute or acuminated apex, 3–12 long, 0.8–2.2 cm wide; green above, glaucous below with few or no hairs, finely serrate (to entire) along margins, on petioles 6–15 mm long; catkins Feb–Mar, crowded, on leafless short peduncles to 5 mm, or sessile, longer than leaves, 1.2–6.0 cm long; scales yellow; stamens 3–5; pistils 2–3 mm; capsules 3–6 mm, hairs?. Stream banks and margins of springs, Guatemala to southern New Mexico, Arizona and southern California. Kern Co.: moist valley bottoms in oak woodlands, chaparral, and desert scrub below 5,000 ft, Salix lasiandra in Twisselmann.  CCH—San Joaquin Valley:  Rosedale, Abrams 20 Mar 1900 (DS51124); China Grade East Bakersfield, bluffs of Kern River, South slope, adobe soil, bluffs of river, 500 ft, Lyman Benson 3100, Mar 20 1932 (DS223022; S. laevigata UC511185); Poso Creek just north of Famosa - Eastern San Joaquin Valley, occasional, along an ephemeral creek, Lower Sonoran grassland, Ernest C. Twisselmann 4147, Mar 22, 1958 (CAS519422). Sierra Nevada: common along Poso Creek, 0.5 mile southwest of the junction of the Granite & Woody Roads - Greenhorn Range, Douglas oak woodland, 2700 ft, spreading tree, 25 feet tall, bark reddish brown, leaves blue-green below, dark green above, Ernest C. Twisselmann 12740, August 26, 1966 (CAS59211); Middlewater Spring in the low hills northwest of Woody - Greenhorn Range, Sierra Nevada, spreading tree, 20 feet tall, 30 feet across, 3 large trunks from the base, Upper Sonoran grassland, one of several in full sun in wet soil, 1350 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 11778, April 6, 1966 (CAS1170416);  Lower Kern Canyon, Paul F. Covel 431, March 24, 1936 (CAS815619); Douglas oak woodland, common along Lureau Creek, 3950 ft, spreading tree, leaves deep green above, blue-green below, Ernest C. Twisselmann 12744, August 26, 1966 (CAS); 2 miles east of Kern Co. Park - Greenhorn Mountains, Sierra Nevada, 4700 ft, John Thomas Howell 38727, Sept. 22, 1962 (CAS815151); Kern Hot Springs, arid digger pine association, colony of only 3 (tree, 15 feet tall, limbs spreading, leaves green above, dull bluish green below) growing on the borders of a broad highly mineralized marshy area (CAS820756); Kern River, 0.5 mile south of River Kern, 3050 ft, along the flood plain of the river, digger pine association, common shrub, 6 feet tall, many stems from the base, leaves dark green above, dull green below. bark of branchlets bright brown, Ernest C. Twisselmann 6379, July 26, 1961 (CAS820758; S. lasiandra CAS596055); Cannell Creek, 1.5 mile east of River Kern, Twisselmann 8750 (CAS596060; S. laevigata RSA164168); Salmon Falls Trail at Kern River, Kern River Canyon, common along streams, chaparral, 3200 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann, 18588, March 22, 1972 (CAS565036); South Fork of Kern river, 0.5 mile below the Kernville Highway Bridge, streambank in the arid shrub association, 2500 ft, tree, 30 feet tall, trunk diameter 20 inches, bark brownish, slightly furrowed, leaves green above, duller below, common along the South Fork to Lake Isabella, Ernest C. Twisselmann, 17785, June 21, 1971 (CAS596075; S. lucida ssp. lasiandra RSA);  Kern River Preserve of The Nature Conservancy, South Fork Valley near Weldon, John Thomas Howell & Catherine Best 54720, April 19, 1983 (CAS904142), South Fork flood plain at Onyx, shrub 12 ft tall in dense thickets in very sandy soil along a small canal, desert shrub association, 2500 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 18590, March 21, 1972 (CAS565037); 10 miles east of Onyx, J. T. Howell 35167, 1960-03-25 (GH382389); First fork of spanish Needle Creek - Sierra Nevada, arid shrub association, tree to 25 ft tall and broad, main stem to 20 inches diam., occasional at springs along a dry creek, Ernest C. Twisselmann 10900, June 3, 1965 (CAS820757; S. lucida ssp. lasiandra RSA); Grapevine Canyon west of Indian Wells Valley, tree, 20 feet tall, leaves yellow-green above, branchlets reddish-yellow, lead-green below, scarce along the arid canyon bottom, rabbit brush-salt brush association, Ernest C. Twisselmann 6527, August 22, 1961 (CAS596070); Walker Pass - Mojave Desert, 4000 ft, south slope in sandy soil, Lyman Benson 3453, Apr 24 1932 (DS223582; S. laevigata POM285684); Canyon bottom, 3 miles west of summit of Walker Pass, John Thomas Howell 5014, May 13, 1930.( CAS180920); Flying Dutchman Creek Canyon on Havilah-Mt. Breckenridge Road, Upper Sonoran brush and woodland, 4400 ft, John Thomas Howell & Gordon H. True 47818, June 15, 1971 (CAS819637) Tehachapi Mts.: Cienega below Fort Tejon, Valley oak woodland, 3100 ft, common wet soil tree of the region, Ernest C. Twisselmann 9761, July 17, 1964 (CAS592062); Bronco Canyon, Tejon Ranch, large tree, 30 feet tall, leaves dark green above, blue green below, occasional along a moist canyon bottom, open canyon live oak association, Ernest C. Twisselmann 12552, July 5, 1966 (CAS592120); Basque Encina, Canyon, occasional in the moist center of a broad dryish meadow, live oak association, 4550 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann12555, July 5, 1966 (CAS519475); Proctor Lake bed, scarce around an old subalkaline lake bed, long since drained, Upper Sonoran grassland, 3950 ft;  San Emigdio Range: Neasons Flat, tree 30 feet tall, 24 feet across, leaves deep green above, dull green below, occasional in sandy soil on a flat with subsurface moisture, Douglas oak woodland, 3200 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 8297, June 3, 1963 (CAS519466); Potrero in upper San Emigdio Canyon, locally common along a small sunny creek of sulphurous water, Douglas oak woodland, 2500 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann11041, June 18, 1965 (CAS596063), 12576, July 13, 1966 (CAS519467, S. lucida ssp. lasiandra SBBG26076).  Mojave Desert: El Paso Mountains, Last Chance Canyon - Mohave-Randsburg Region, shrub, many stems from the base to 6 feet tall, branchlets reddish, not common, canyon bottom, desert subshrub association, 2380 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 3340, April 10, 1957.

          Apparently a subtropical American species recently recognized to occur in Arizona (Argus et al. 2012). The occurrence in California appears to be a nomenclatural matter but also involves character differences.   Most of our plants were previously S. laevigata or S. lasiandra, while only  S. bonplandiana is mentioned to occur in Kern County by CAS, DS, and GH. Argus et al. (2010) considered S. bonplandiana to be a Central American and Mexican species reaching its northernmost range in southern Arizona, wherein Dorn (2010) this corresponds to S. bonplandiana var. laevigata. Argus (2012 in JM2) subsequently included Dorn’s var. laevigata under S. laevigata; essentially, synonymizing S. bonplandiana and S. laevigata, which also means that S. bonplandiana, the earlier name, must be the one adopted, not S. laevigata.  Because the taxonomy  of the taxa are in question, both species are tentatively included in this treatment.  The confusion concerning Salix lasiandra appears to be interpretation of taxonomic characters used to distinguish the species.

Salix exigua Nuttall 1842 var. exiguaNarrow leaf willow. Clonal shrubs 2–4 m, older twigs yellowish to reddish or orange brown with appressed hairs; leaves appearing before the catkins, narrowly elliptical to nearly with parallel margins, 10–23 (-28)× longer than wide, 3–14 cm long, 2–8 mm wide, gradually tapered to apex, acute to acuminate; similarly green on both surfaces except for whitish haris on lower surface; lower leaf surface with soft flexuous or silky appressed hairs, with conspicuous midrib as round raised keel; upper leaf surface less hairy and less keeled, margins with a thickened nerve, with low upward directed remote teeth; petioles 0.5–5 (-7) mm; stipules minute, soon deciduous on early growth, leafy on  later growth. Catkins Mar–Jul, cylindrical, male 1.3–5.4 cm, female 1.4–7 cm. Wet borders of streams and creeks in the desert and along the eastern Sierra Nevada below 8,000 ft. Type from Muddy Creek, a tributary of the Virgin River, Lincoln Co., NV.  Kern Co.:  “Occasional to common in sunny wet places (sometimes wet only in winter and spring) in all cismontane associations through the yellow pine forest and at springs in the mountains bordering the desert.” (Twisselmann). CCH—San Joaquin Valley: Old River Road, 10.5 km. southwest of Bakersfield, H. P. Bracelin 579 (CAS306929); Buena Vista Canal 2.5 mi. w. of Buttonwillow, E. C. Twisselmann 1452, Jul 20 1955 (RSA116516); Santa Fe railroad west of Bakersfield, A. A. Heller 7591, 1905-04-06 (GH382623); 6 miles north of Bakersfield, 15 to 25 foot tree, shrubby, branchlets drooping (Malcolm A. Nobs & S. Galen Smith 466, 09 02 1948 (UCD110936). Sierra Nevada—Kern River Canyon: 4 mi. south of Democrat Hot Springs, John Thomas Howell 352007, Mar. 26, 1960 (CAS829337, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Kern River, below Isabella, R. Hoffmann, May 9 1929 (SBBG58869); 6 miles south of Roads End P. O., Kern River Canyon, L. S. Rose 58045A, 1958-05-22. Kern River north and east of Lake Isabella:: Kern River just east of the Kernville Cemetery, small shrub, several stems to 30 inches tall, bark of branchlets yellow-green, branches glossy, tan leaves yellow-green, broad river valley in an arid digger pine association, occasinoal in gravel banks in and along the river, 2550 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 6470, August 21, 1961 (CAS816939), 3 mi north of Kernville, John Thomas Howell 38658, July 12, 1962 (CAS816935), 0.5 mile below Kernville, shrub 8 feet tall, bark tan, smooth, leaves glossy green above, dull green below, common along the river, growing in thickets, digger pine association, 2635 ft (CAS824259); South Fork Valley near Onyx on road to Weldon, 2700 ft, John Thomas Howell 47549, November 9, 1970 (CAS818726). San Emigdio Mts. Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge; c. 5.0 air miles E of the junction of Cerro Noroeste and Highway 166, Salix exiguia the shrub in wet drainage, other species…Baccharis salicifolia (occasional), Juncus, and scattered Tamarix ramosissima, 689 m, Pam De Vries 7554, Jul 1 2009 (UCR222349); Toad Spring, summit of Quatal Canyon, shrub 12 feet tall, many stems from the base, with smooth reddish brown bark, leaves silvery green, Pinyon pine association, 5700 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 2744, May 3(CAS412306). Tehachapi Mts.: Burham Canyon, 6 miles up dirt road from the Aquaduct Road, 6.5 miles due west of Tehachapi-Willow Springs Road, Tylerhorse Canyon, common shrub  ± 2.0 m tall, canyon bottom, Desert scrub in canyon bottom with some isolated carbonate outcrops and several perennial seeps within the canyon bottom, 1329 - 1340 m, Justin M. Wood, C. Huntley & J. Miner 3965, May 5 2011 (RSA799844). Mojave Desert: just south of Leuhman Ridge and its rocket research complex, Edwards Air Force Base, around pond created as outlet from sewage oxidation ponds, L. R. Heckard, Capt. Sutay 4606a, Apr 4 1977 (JEPS76552).

            Specimens in CCH identified only to species appear to be var. exigua. They are from Tehachapi Mts. (Monolith), Bloomfield Ranch at Onyx, Havilah Creek, near Kernville, 60–1,737 m. The typical variety is distinguished in JP2 by appressed twig hairs, ovary lacking hairs except sometimes on “beak,” style <0.2 mm, rounded as opposed to acute floral bracts in male catkins, and shorter silky hairs on young leaves.

Salix exigua var. hindsiana (Salix hindsiana Bentham 1857) Dorn 1998. Hind's willow.  Clonal shrubs from horizontal roots; stems erect with ascending branches; twigs whip-like, orange to brown or reddish brown, aging brown, with mostly spreading hairs and narrowly crescent-shaped leaf scars; leaves narrow, 1.8−8 mm wide, entire to remotely toothed along margins, tapering to apex, pinnately veined with conspicuous raised midrib on upper surface, green and silvery haired on lower surface, on short petioles 0.5–5 mm long; catkins on leafy shoots appearing Apr–May with or after leaves, usually  not exceeding leaves, males 6–30 mm long, 5.5–8 mm thick  on peduncles 1.5–5 mm long, females 20−30 mm long, 3.3–4.5 mm thick on peduncles 1−5 mm long. Apparently west of the Sierra Nevada. Type from [banks] along the Sacramento River.  Kern Co.: “Occasional in the valley, often in dense thickets that are frequently troublesome along canals” (Twisselmann, Salix hindsiana). CCH—San Joaquin Valley: Two miles west of Bakersfield, along Santa Fe railroad, A. A. Heller 7591, 1905-04-06 (A383008); North side of Hwy 58 at turnoff to Bealville, shrub to 3 m tall, in a ditch, 2700 ft, A. T. Whittemore 79-005, 17 March 1979 (CAS1103615); Buena Vista Canal: 2 1/2 miles west of Buttonwillow, along canal bank in moist soil, 250 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 1452, July 20, 1954 (CAS391063); Sycamore Creek, 0.5 mile east of Arvin, shrub, stems to 4 feet tall, growing in a small dense thicket, leaves grayish, occasional in waste places and along canals, growing in damp soil, 500 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 9715, July 17, 1964 (CAS518861)

Salix geyeriana Andersson 1858. Geyer's willow. Shrub to 5 m; twigs olive green to reddish or purplish brown, generally glaucous, velvety; leaves appearing just before or with the catkins in Apr–Jun, without stipules, often oriented in different dirctions, ±narrow elliptical to strap-shaped or linear, drawn out to a pointed (acute) apex, (3-) 4–6 (-7)× longer than wide, (2-) 3.2–8 (-9) cm long, 0.6–1.5 cm wide, slightly folded upwards along midrib and curved downwards from base to tip or more abruptly near tip, entire to partly toothed distally, rolled under  along margins, glossy dark green above, whitish green (glaucescent) or glaucous below, hairless (Argus et al 2010; Dorn 2010), or with silky white hairs, which may also include rusty ones (Argus et al 2010), petioles (2-) 4–9 (-10) mm. Catkins on short leafy branchlets to 1.8 cm long, male 0.7–1.0 (-1.5) cm, 6 mm, female 1–2.5 cm; capsules with short hairs  Subalpine streams and meadows, 4,500–10,000 ft., San Bernardino Mts., Southern Sierra (Kern Plateau) British Columbia, Montana, New Mexico. Type from Coeur d’Alene, ID.  Tulare/Kern Co.: “Common along the fork of Cannell Creek southwest of Pine Flat on the Kern Plateau” (Twisselmann, var. argentea), 2,163–2,177 m (CCH, one specimen with comment indicating the location reported by Twisselman for his specimen is in Tulare Co.).

Salix gooddingii Ball 1905.  Goodding's black willow. Shrub or usually tree to 15 (– 30) m with dark brown, furrowed or shaggy bark; 1st yr twigs pale yellow or yellowish brown, velvety or soft-shaggy-hairy when young, balding with age, sometimes brittle; margins of bud scales distinct, overlapping; stipules small and inconspicuous, or on more vigorous shoots or later leaves, leaf-like or ear-like, toothed, glandular hairy, soon deciduous; leaves appearing with the catkins, Mar–May, flaccid, often drooping, the often blades linear to long narrowly elliptical, similarly green on both surfaces, white-hairy when young but losing their hair before maturity, or mature leaves retaining minute hairs on lower surface, 5–7× longer than wide, (5-) 7–13 (-15) cm long, 0.7–2 cm wide, gradually tapering to a pointed or shortly rounded apex, finely serrate along margins, with numerous pinnate veins, on petioles 3–10 mm long, sometimes with pair of glands near blades; catkins usually exceeding leaves, male catkins (2.0-) 3–6 (-8.0) cm on leafy shoots 0.2–2.3 cm, stamens 4–6, nectaries  reddish purple, female catkins (2.3-) 3–6 (-8.2) cm on leafy shoots (0.2-) 0.4–3.0 (-4.8) cm; ovary usually glabrous, or with short hairs. Common along streams, marshes, seepage areas, washes, meadows, often below 2,000 ft, but up to 8,000 ft, California to Texas, Mexico. Type from a tributary of the Virgin River, Lincoln Co., NV. Kern Co.: Common in the Valley, rare in the desert (Twisselmann), also common in Kern River Canyon and occasional on foothill slopes of Tehachapi Mts bordering the desert, 60–1,417 m. CCH—Western Transverse Range; San Emigdio Mts., Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge; ca. 0.5 air miles SE of the junction of Cerro Noroeste and Klipstein Cyn Rd., just W of USFWS offices, single individuals growing in a broad wet depression with Juncus mexicanus, Leymus triticoides, Pam De Vries, 7502, Jun 2 2009 (RSA748499).  San Joaquin Valley: Kern National Wildlife Refuge, artificial fresh water marsh, wet soil near marsh, elev, 250 ft, first flooded in July of this year (September 29, 1964), young tree, 5 feet tall. bark tannish green flushed red, Ernest C. Twisselmann 10251 (CAS518865); Buena Vista Sough, 2.4 miles east of Lost Hills - Temblor Range and the Western San Joaquin Valley, tree, 20 feet tall, 23 feet across, with many branches from the base, elev. 300 ft, common in moist rich soil, Ernest C. Twisselmann 1886, April 19, 1955 (CAS596081); Tule Elk State Reserve, large tree, about 20 ft tall,  along southern canal banks, 88 m, L. M. Moe 2549, Apr 3 2004 (RSA707454); Old River Road, 9.5 km N of Rancho San Emidio, 32 km SW of Bakersfield, staminate tree, about 7.5 m high, trunk 4--4.5 dm, in ditch beside road, 80 m (LA208668, C.Ball & Carleton R. Ball without date); Old Highway U.S. 99, 10.3 miles north of Mettlers Station (Kern Island region), tree, 25 feet tall, trunk diameter 18 inches, bark gray, leaves green on both sides, occasional along a dry drainage ditch on a broad alkali plain, 400 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 9721, July 17, 1964 (CAS596085, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Kern River, 2.2 miles west of Stockdale Country Club, bushy tree, 20 feet tall, bark tan, smooth, common along the river, often forming thickets, elev 375 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 5011, April 1, 1959 (CAS518873, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Rosedale, Le Roy Abrams 455, Oct 1899 (DS50655, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Kern River, just east of Hart Memorial Park, shrub, many branches to 8 feet tall, cccasional along the river, Lower Sonoran grassland, 475 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 10546, April 14, 1965  (CAS596084, George W. Argus 1989-01-01). Sierra Nevada—Kern River: Lake Isabella adjacent to old Kernville site, 2675 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 19237, Sept. 22, 1972 (CAS822252, George W. Argus 1989-01-01);  Hungry Gulch, 35.673 -118.47, 3000 ft, Paul Leskinen 1279, 18 August 1972 (CAS822254, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Kern River Canyon 9 miles from mouth of canyon, 1800 ft, John Thomas Howell & Gordon H. True 45775, May 15, 1969 (CAS818750, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); 2 miles above Richbar, Kern River Canyon between Democrat Springs and mouth of canyon, John Thomas Howell 51796, May 19, 1976 (CAS822262, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Kern Canyon, riparian belt above powerhouse, rocky north exposure, 305 m, M. Theroux 219, May 11 1982 (UCR47070, A.C. Sanders 1987 Feb); Nearly 2.6 miles ENE of Caliente, along small stream in foothill woodland with Populus fremontii, 500 m, R. F. Thorne 31696, May 16 1963 (POM172532); moist meadow near Keene, F. A. MacFadden 3070, Apr 3 1931 (UC474008). Tehachapi Mts.: Basque Encina - Tehachapi Mountains, Canyon live oak association, large shrub, few branches from the base, scarce in moist soil at the upper end of a long broad dryish meadow, 4650 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 12556, July 5, 1966 (CAS519447, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Southern Foothills of Tehachapi Mountains. mouth of Canyon de la Lecheria, north of the end of 290th St. West, head of Pescado Creek, grassy N-facing slope between Quercus cornelius-tuckeri scrub and Q. lobata woodland, scarce tree in Q. lobata woodland on canyon bottom, along a small wash, 1230 m, A. C. Sanders 38054, Apr 26 2010 (UCR214725); Foothills just east of National Cement Plant at foot of hill 3477, 0.25 mi. N of the Los Angeles Co. line, uncommon tree to c. 10 m tall, staminate (dioecious), riparian zone along a small permanent creek fed by springs; dense willow forest, 1037 m, A. C. Sanders 33398, Apr 13 2007 (UCR184081).  Mojave Desert: Cottonwood Creek, foothills of the Tehachapi Mountains, Powerline Road NW of California Poppy Preserve State Park, west of Lancaster, rare, 20 male trees at seep, bajada, wash, spring, rolling hills and roadside, creosote bush scrub, burrobush, spiny hopsage, and winter fat. D. Charlton 5082, May 4 1991 (RSA560982); Rosamond Lake, Edwards Air Force Base - the Mojave-Randsburg Region, Mojave Desert, rare as isolated marture & old individuals on small hummocks on the broad dry lake bed, growing in subalkaline playa clay, desert dry lake, 1975 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 9351, May 7, 1964 (CAS596082, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Southeast base of El Paso Mountains, ca. 1.5 mile east of the mouth of Last Chance Canyon - the Mojave-Randsburg Region, single plant growing at a small subalkaline seep at the bse of an arid slope, saltbush association, 2300 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 11988, April 26, 1966.( CAS596087, George W. Argus 1989-01-01).

Salix laevigata Bebb 1874 [Salix bonplandiana var. laevigata (Bebb) Dorn 1994]. Red willow. Tree to 15 (-20) m; buds red, conical; new growth twigs yellowish to reddish brown, hairy, balding and becoming shiny and purplish, reddish or greenish brown in 2nd yr , brittle at base; leaves appearing with or after catkins in (Dec-) Mar –May (-Jun); young leaves without hairs to entirely white hairy or with rusty-hairs, retained or lost with age, developed leaves firm, glossy green above and whitish blue below (glaucous), narrowly elliptic to sword-shaped to widest above the mid region, (3-) 4–6 (-9)× longer than wide, (4-) 5–17 (-19 cm) long, (1.0-) 1.5–3 (-4) cm wide, gradually narrowed to a drawn-out tip, margins finely serrate to entire, not rolled under, midrib raised on lower surface, petioles 3.5–12 (-18) mm long; stipules variable on plant, sometimes leafy with marginal teeth and conspicuous veins, or reduced to stalk-like glands, or absent on some shoots; male catkins 3.5–5.5(–7.5) cm on leafy shoots 0.4–4.0 cm, female 3.0–8.0 cm on leafy shoots 0.3–4.0 cm; capsules hairless, 3–5.5 mm long.  Common, riverbanks, seepage areas, lakeshores, canyons; below 5,500 ft, California, southern Oregon, northern Nevada, Arizona, Mexico, and northern Central America.  Type from Santa Cruz Co., CA. Kern Co.: Occasional in the foothills around the valley occurring along Poso Creek on the valley floor as far west as the Faosa, and extending through the Upper Sonoran associations in the mountains to the desert regions, where it is common at seeps and springs. Also common in the Temblor Range (Twisselmann), 152–1,707 m (CCH). CCH—Sierra Nevada: 21 mi. from Bakersfield. Kern River Canyon, G. R. Johnstone & John Raiselis s.n., Apr 11 1933 (POM36263, G. Argus 1991).

            The occurrence of Salix laevigata in Kern County is questionable.  Specimen data in CCH from CAS  for S. bonplandiana correspond to S. laevigata, or occasionally S. lasiandra from other herbaria, based on the same collector and collector’s number.  However, Salix laevigata may be distinguished from S. bonplandiana by deciduous bracts on female flowers and by the larger capsules, 2–4× longer than wide (Argus et al. 2010 in FNA), or they be distinguished as varieties by whether the leaves are more or less than 5× longer than wide, plants with the longer leaves are var. bonplandiana (Dorn 1994, 2010) with a distribution confined largely to southern Arizona, or they may be considered indistinguishable in which case  S. laevigata becomes a synonym of S. bonplandiana (Argus 2012 in JM2, as S. laevigata). The geographical ranges for the different treatments of the taxa are not the same; for example, the range of S. bonplandiana in Argus et al. (2010) corresponds to that of S. laevigata by Dorn (2010), while it may also be noted that Dorn (1994) designated the lectotype for S. laevigata.

Salix lasiandra Bentham 1857 var. lasiandra [Salix lucida Muhl. ssp. lasiandra (Bentham) E. Murray 1984]. Arrow willow. Multi-stemmed shrub or tree to 11 m; twigs yellowish to glossy reddish brown, with or without shaggy hairs; leaves appearing with the catkins Mar–Jun, often on short leafy shoots from naked twigs, elliptic to broadly sword-shaped, 3–6 (-10)× longer than wide, 5.3–17 cm long, 1.5–3.1 cm wide, toothed, glandular and flat along margins, glossy green above, “waxy white” beneath, with white hairs and sometimes also mixed rusty hairs, or not glaucous, with cluster of glands on deeply grooved petioles 4–15 (-30)  mm long near blade; stipules leafy, kidney-shaped, glandular toothed; catkins persistent on leafy shoots, males (2-) 3–6 (-8) cm on shoots 3–27 mm, females (2-) 3–10 cm on loner shoots 0.6–5.6 cm. Common, wet meadows, shores, seepage areas below 9,000 ft, California to Alaska and New Mexico. Type from banks of Sacramento River, CA. Kern Co.: Common as a “foothill tree of wet places in the mountains south to El Paso Canyon and east to Spanish Needle Creek north of Walker Pass.”  A shrub form occasionally occurs in dense colonies along the Kern River from Lake Isabella to the Tulare County line, 609–2,400 m (CCH).   CCH—Sierra Nevada: Below Glenville, 2000 ft, riparian, Paul Leskinen 1415, 9 September 1972, (CAS, var. lasiandra, George W. Argus, 1989-01-01), Poso Flat road, 0.5 mile south of Glennville Highway - Greenhorn Range, Tree, 34 feet tall. trunk diameter: 12 inches, old bark gray, somewhat furrowed; young branches smooth, gray, Douglas oak association, common willow of the region, wet canyon bottom, Ernest C. Twisselmann 3319, April 3, 1957 (CAS, var. lasiandra, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Kern Co. Park - Greenhorn Mountains, 6000 ft, John Thomas Howell 38750, Sept. 22, 1962 (CAS823886, var. lasiandra, George W. Argus 1989-01-01). Tehachapi Mts.: Water Cyn Rd SW of Tehachapi and 1.0 mi S of Highline, common, riparian area with willows and cottonwood, G. K. Helmkamp, E. A. Helmkamp, 5585, Apr 25 2000 (IRVC29530); Tejon Ranch: El Paso Canyon - Tehachapi-Kernville Region, tree, about 40 feet tall, leaves green above, lead green below, common along the canyon bottom, canyon live oak association, 3000 ft (CAS596050, var. lasiandra, George W. Argus 1989-01-01).

           Salix lasiandra is recognized as a major constituent of  “The Great Valley Cottonwood Riparian Forest,” a dense, broad-leafed, winter deciduous forest dominated by Freemont cottonwood (Populus fremontii ssp. fremontii), Goodding’s willow (Salix gooddingii), and red willow (Salix laevigata) in Biological Resources Kern River Valley Specific Plan (Page 4.4-3 Draft EIR January 2011).  It occurs along the South Fork of the Kern River between Canebrake and Lake Isabella.  Common understory plants reportedly are California wild grape (Vitis californica), stinging nettle (Urtica holosericea), and mule fat (Baccharis vimenea). California boxelder (Acer negundo var. californicum), and Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia).  Below Lake Isabella in Kern River Canyon, Salix gooddingii was more frequently collected (CCH)

            Occasional specimens of Salix lasiandra in CCH with the same collector and number have been identified S. bonplandiana Salix lasiandra is distinguished by the cluster of glands on a grooved petiole, by the leafy catkin shoots that arise from a branch that has yet to develop seasonal leaves, the young leaf blades arcuate, and by the glandular toothed earlobe-like stipules.

Salix lasiolepis Bentham 1857. Arroyo willow. Shrub or small tree to 12 m; twigs whip-like, conspicuously fuzzy (dense short hairy) yellowish to reddish brown; leaf buds ovoid, cap-like, velvety hairy, ridged along margin;  leaves appearing after the catkins, elliptical or often wider above mid region, 2–5 (-9)× longer than wide, (3.5-) 5–12 (-16) cm long, 0.5–3.0 cm wide, margins entire to remotely irregularly toothed, slightly to strongly rolled under, dark green and shiny above, grayish waxy (glaucous) and/or white hairy below, on convex to flat or slightly grooved petioles (5-) 7–16 (-22) mm long; lateral  veins arcuate, forking near margins, tertiary veins reticulate;, stipules sometimes well developed, leafy, round and narrowed to tip or ear-shaped, 2–8 mm, or minute or absent; catkins (Jan-) Apr–May (-Jun), on short scarcely leafy peduncles, or sessile without leaves, 0–5 mm; males and females (1.8-) 3.0–8.8 cm long; male flowers with 2 stamens . Abundant along shores, marshes, meadows, springs, bluffs below 9,000 ft. California to Washington, Idaho, Texas and Mexico. Type from  banks of Salinas and Carmel Rivers near Monterey, CA.  Kern Co.: “Common in the mountains from the foothills to the yellow pine forests, east to Erskine Creek; scarce in the Temblor Range.” The shrub form (var. bracelinae Ball, Twisselmann) was recognized to occur from Indian Wells Canyon, “southeastern Kern Plateau through the mountains southwest to Mt. Pinos, frequently in the pinyon-woodland but also common in the Jeffrey pine forest where it often forms dense thickets in broad sunny meadows.” “The thicket along the creek at Claraville Meadow in the Piute Mountains is nearly a mile long” (Twisselmann), 121–2,468 m (CCH), possibly equivalent to a specimen at RSA (CCH)  identified S. lutea, collected by Howell & True from Claraville; S. lutea generally differs from S. lasiolepis in having leaves broadest below the mid region. Additionally,  Salix lasiolepsis seems best distinguished by the sessile to short pedunculate catkins on leafless shoots, but see also S. scouleriana with similarly born catkins that differs by the more apically rounded leaves.

Salix lemmonii Bebb 1879. Lemmon's willow. Shrub to 4 m; twigs yellowish to reddish waxy brown (strongly glaucous) or brownish black, sometimes hairy at nodes; leaves appearing with or after catkins (May–Jul), at first with appressed short hairs, or long silky hairs, sometimes mixed with rusty hairs, soon falling off completely or partially, shiny green above with conspicuous impressed veins, glaucous below, narrowly elliptical or margins parallel, rounded at base, (3) 4–6 (-7)× longer than wide,  3–11 cm long, 0.8–2.8 cm wide, tapering more to apex than base, gradually tapered to a pointed apex, entire to finely glandular serrate along margin, petioles (3-) 5–10 (-16) mm; stipules minute, leafy, to 8 mm; catkins short cylindric on leafy shoots, 0.5–6 mm; male catkins (1.0-)1.5 –(2.8-) 3.5 cm, female (1.5-) 1.9–4.4 (-5.0) cm, pistils spreading, curved.  Along streams, wet meadows, burns in subalpine pine forest, 5,000–10,000 ft, mountains east of the Coast Ranges to British Columbia, Montana, and Colorado. Type from Sierra Valley, CA.  Kern Co.: at 7,200 ft in the Jeffrey pine forest in the Bartolas Country on the southern Kern Plateau (Twisselmann), and  in the Piute Mts. southwest end of French Meadow at 6,500 ft, heavily grazed, Jeffrey pine association (CCH: Twisselmann , 16 Sep 1964),1,981–2,165 m (CCH).

            Salix lemmonii has been distinguished from S. geyeriana by its slightly larger less hairy leaves (11 cm long & 2.5 cm wide, compared to 2.6 cm long & 1.5 cm wide in S. geyeriana, Dorn & Cronquist 2005 in Intermountain Flora), apparently often serrulate along margins (Munz & Keck 1959), and by its “spheric” catkins (11–18 mm), compared to “stout cyclindric”  catkins (16–34 mm for S. geyeriana, Argus in JM2). Although both species are evidently rare in Kern County, it appears that they still could be confused with S. lasiolepis.  It should be noted that the key features mentioned for the three species in the "pistillate" key in JM2 do not agree with those in the descriptions on whether the flowers appear before or after the leaves. In the vegetative key by Dorn and Cronquist (Intemountain Flora), S. lasiolepis is distinguished by hairy leaves, compared to glabrous to sparsely short hairy for S. lemmonii, and compared to longer appressed silky hairs for S. geyeriana.  Additionally, leaf hairs in S. lasiolepis are all white compared to the presence of red hairs in S. lemmonii (Intermountain Flora).

 Salix lutea Nuttall 1842. Yellow willow. Multi-stemmed shrub to 4 m or more; twigs red, or yellowish green, gray to brown in age; leaves appearing after or with the catkins (Mar–Jun), yellowish green above, paler green below, or white hairy to bald and glaucous below, often more hairy above than below, narrow elliptical to wider above or below the mid region, 3–5× longer than wide, 4–9 cm, abruptly rounded to gradually tapered to a rounded base, or gradually or abruptly tapered to a pointed apex, finely or obscurely toothed to entire along margins, secondary (lateral) veins obscure or conspicuous, impressed on upper surface; tertiary veins obscure or evident and flush; petioles 4–19 mm, often ~1 cm; stipules ±triangular to heart-shaped, 3–5 mm (-10 mm), deciduous. Male catkins 3–5 cm, female catkins 3–6 (-9) cm, sessile or on short thick leafy peduncles to 0.7 mm. Along rivers, creeks, wet meadows, 2,000–9,500 ft, southern California Mts., eastern Sierra Nevada to Oregon, Montana, Wyoming and Arizona.  Type from Rocky Mts. to Columbia.  Kern Co.: “Forming a thicket on a sandy flat along the Upper Bartolas Creek [in Jeffrey pine forest near its summit, 6800 ft] in the southern Kern Plateau” (Twisselmann, 12458, June 25, 1966, CAS595983, G. W. Argus 1989-01-01), and at scattered locations in the Sierra Nevada, 1,920–2,072 m. CCHSierra Nevada: Piute Mts. near Claraville, meadow in Jeffrey pine forest, 6300 ft, John Thomas Howel & Gordon H. True 47969, June 16, 1971 (CAS816883, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Bloomfield Rancho, Onyx, E. W. Voegelin s.n., July 28, 1932 (DS217145, G. W. Argus 1989-01-01);  Ca. 84 km E-NE of Bakersfield, 4.0 km SW of Walker Pass near the Pacific Crest Trail, Sequoia National Forest, Scodie Mountains, 3.5 m-high shrubs, forming a dense thicket, local, in decomposed granite near a small stream, 1595 m—Artemisia tridentata, Carex alma, Collinsia callosa, Linanthus parryae, Lomatium mohavensis, Lupinus excubitus, Nama demissum, Nolina parryi, Opuntia basilaris, Orochaenactis thysanocarpha, Pinus monophylla, Quercus chrysolepis, & Thysanocarpus laciniatus, Dana York, Jim Shevock, 744 11 May 1996 (CAS1121720).

Salix melanopsis Nuttall 1842.  Dusky willow. Thicket forming shrub from clonal stems, to 5 m or more; twigs yellowish gray to grayish brown, with or without hairs; leaves appearing before or with the catkins May–Jul; leaves narrowly elliptical to linear, or wider above or below the mid region, (2.5-)4–6 (8.5-15)× longer than wide, 3–9 cm long, (2-) 6–14 (-19) mm wide, gradually more tapered to apex than base, entire to finely toothed along margins, shiny dark green above, paler yellowish or reddish green below with shaggy hairs, petioles 1.5–8 mm; stipules leafy or minute or none.  Catkins on leafy shoots 3–15 mm; males 1.8–4.8 cm, female 2.2–5.8 cm, ovary bald. Along rocky stream beds, 2,000–8,000 ft, North Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada to western Canada, Colorado and Nevada. Type from Lewis [Snake] River, ID. Kern Co.: “Common along Kern River above Lake Isabella” (Twisselmann), 777–1,203 m (CCH). Twisselmann also mentioned it was rare at Cache Creek northeast of Monolith in the Tehachapi Mountains; however, JM2 excludes Tehachapi.  May be confused with S. exigua as seen by collections with same Twisselmann numbers (6436, 6470), CAS (CCH: 28 Mar 2014)   CCH—Sierra Nevada: Kernville [historic site], river bank, R. Hoffmann  Jul 9 1930 (SBBG57934, C R Ball 1932); Kern River just east of the Kernville Cemetery, small shrub, several stems to 30 inches tall, bark of branchlets yellow-green; branches glossy tan, leaves yellow-green, occasional in gravel banks in and along the river; broad river valley in an arid digger pine association, 2550 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 6470, August 21, 1961 (CAS592006); Kern River 0.5 mile below Kernville, Shrub, 6 feet tall. Bark tan, smooth. Leaves glossy green above, dull green below, common along the river, growing in thickets; digger pine association, 2635 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 6437, July 27, 1961 (CAS590663).

Salix scouleriana Barratt 1838. Scouler's willow. Multi-stemmed shrub or tree to 10 m or more; twigs yellowish green to brown or blackish with age, sparsely to densely hairy; leaves  appearing after the catkins (Feb-) Apr–Jun, dark green and bald above, glaucous sparsely reddish hairy below, narrowly elliptical to commonly wider above the mid region, (1.7-) 2–3.9× longer than wide, (2.9-) 3.5–8 (- 12) cm long, 1.0 (1.3–3.5 (-5) cm wide, tapering abruptly to apex, dull green above, whitish green below, entire to toothed and rolled under along margins, petioles 2–13 mm; stipules leafy on young shoot; catkins sessile or on short shoots, male subglobose, 1.8–4.0 cm on shoots up to 4 mm; female 1.8–6.0 (-9.0) mm on shoots up to 8 mm. Common, forests, meadows, springs, and swamps up to 10,000 ft., California to Alaska and to New Mexico and northern Mexico. Type from the Columbia, collected by J. Scouler. Kern Co.: “Scarce, often growing in small dense cluster, in shaded often moist places, mostly on north slopes in the ponderosa pine forest in the Greenhorn Range and on Breckenridge Mountain” (Twisselmann), 1828–2,590 m (CCH) CCH—Sierra Nevada: Cienega north of Tiger Flat, several stems from the base, to 18 feet tall. bark smooth, grayish tan, leaves dull dark green above, olive green below, growing in a dense colony at the lower edge of a small marsh on a north slope ponderosa pine association, Ernest C. Twisselmann 6408, July 27, 1961 (CAS595956, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Saddle between Cane Peak and Black Mt., shrub, many stems from the base, leaves bright green above, dull green below, occasional along a moist ravine on a north slope, yellow pine forest, 6600 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 9791, July 23, 1964 (CAS595960, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); Greenhorn Mt. Park just west of Alta Sierra Lodge, spreading shrub, 3 feet tall, bark smooth, growing in moist loamy soil on a north slope ponderosa pine forest, 6000 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann, 6067, May 4, 1961 (CAS595951, George W. Argus 1989-01-01); 1.5 miles south of Summit - Greenhorn Mountains, 6400 ft, John Thomas Howell 38432, July 10, 1962 (CAS595957, W. Argus 1989-01-01);  Breckenridge Mountain Road, 1.4 miles east of Munzer Meadow, tree, 35 teet tall, trunk diameter 20 inches, bark light gray, smooth, scarce in loam on a north slope in a well developed yellow pine forest, 6700 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 11197, July 27, 1965 (CAS518879, W. Argus 1989-01-01); Breckenridge Mountain Road at the south fork of upper Lucas Creek, shrub, 8 feet tall, growing in a dense colony, leaves green above, duller below, growing in a dense colony in a moist ravine, yellow pine forest, 6150 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann 11180, July 27, 1965. (CAS595952, W. Argus 1989-01-01) Piute Mt., 8500 ft, moist to wet soil. Found growing about springs and brooks, Neal T. Childs 7825  Apr /26, 2013 (CAS702922), Cannell Peak, 1982 m (UCR98871),    Redwood Creek vicinity of Poso Valley (DS50745) and near Parson’s Mill (DS50746 )in Tulare Cos.

Salix sessilifolia Nuttall 1842. Northwest sandbar willow.Multi-stemmed shrub 3–5 m; twigs reddish brown, becoming gray brown or reddish brown, densely hairy (villous); leaves  green and bald above, below not glaucous, densely to sparsely white hairy, narrow elliptic to wider above the mid region, 3–8.5× longer than wide, 4.0–12 cm long, 0.7–1.6 cm wide, tapering abruptly or long tapered to apex, dull green above, remotely toothed along margins, petioles with wavy to silky hairs on one side (adaxial), 1–6 mm; stipules leafy on later shoots; catkins appearing in late April to May, male on short shoots 2.0–4.5 cm,  subcylindric, 3.8–4.5 cm; female 4.0–7.3 mm on shoots 2.0–3.2 cm; sandy or gravelly stream margins, floodplains, 0–200 m, California to British Columbia. Type from rocky borders of the Oregon, at the confluence of the Wahlamet. Twisselmann, included under S. exigua (S. hindsiana with reference to synonym S. sessilifolia var. hindsiana). Species generally not recognized in California.  Kern Co.: CCH—San Joaquin Valley: Poso Creek, 5.5 miles west of Famosa, low shrub, 6 feet tall, in a dense colony in wet soil along a canal, irrigated farmlands, 320 ft, Ernest C. Twisselmann, 8971, September 6, 1963 (CAS518870).