Niebla palmeri

The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
January 2004, Oct. 2005, Sep 2012
Additions May 2017, Dec 2017, Dec 2021

Niebla and Vermilacinia (Ramalinaceae) from California and Baja California.  
Spjut, R.W., 1996. ISSN 0833-1475, 208 pp.  
Sida, Botanical Miscellany 14. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Inc.

Evolutionary history of coastal species of fog lichen genera
Niebla
, Ramalina and Vermilacinia
Emmanuel Sérusiaux & Richard  Spjut
Baja California, Jan-Feb 2016

Spjut R, Simon A, Guissard M, Magain N, Sérusiaux E. 2020. The fruticose genera in the Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes): their diversity and evolutionary history.  MycoKeys. 73: 1–68, published online.
MycoKeys. 2020;73:1-68. Published 2020 Sep 11. doi:10.3897/mycokeys.73.47287

Evolution and diversification of Niebla
Steve Leavitt et al., Baja California, Dec 2016


Jorna J, J Linde, P Searle, A Jackson, M-E Nielsen, M Nate, N Saxton, F Grewe, M de los Angeles Herrera-Campos, R Spjut, H Wu, B Ho, S Leavitt, T Lumbsch.  Species boundaries in the messy middle -- testing the hypothesis of micro-endemism in a recently diverged lineage of coastal fog desert lichen fungi. Ecology and Evolution. Published Online: 20 Dec 2021.  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ece3.8467.

Additional Discussion: See: Introduction to Niebla and its phylogeography

 

Isla de los Coronados, Palmer 310, holotype for Niebla palmeri (US)

 

TLC for specimens collected in Chaparral-Desert Transition (CDT). 17054-72 near San Quintín, 73-82 SW of El Rosario to Punta Baja: 17054-4695—N. x effusa with salazinic acid (initial run included sekikaic acid, 17062a-4702—N. limicola with salazinic acid,17063-4709—N. palmeri with sekikaic acid & triterpenes, 17064-4710—N. josecuervoi with salazinic acid, 17076-4719—N. undulata with divaricatic acid & triterpenes, 17078-4720—N. palmeri x N. pulchribarbara with protocetraric acid, sekikaic acid & triterepenes (depsidone clade),17079-5060—N. palmeri (x brachyura) 2nd TLC with sekikaic acid & tritepenes (initial TLC included hypoprotocetraric acid, DNA in depsidone clade) 6-loci phylogeny in sekikaic acid clade with N. fimbriata,  17082-5063—N. brachyura with hypoprotocetraric acid and possibly trace of sekikaic acid. Note triterpenes in sekikaic specimens differ in 4709—N. palmeri.  

 

ITS and 6-loci phylogenies for N. palmeri. N. aff. palmeri and N. fimbriata.  Morphologically different, all chemically similar with sekikaic acid, or with both sekikaic acid and divaricatic acid (N. aff palmeri). Niebla fimbriata and N. palmeri from near San Antonio del Mar, N. aff. palmeri from Bahía de San Quintín, ~ 80 km N of San Antonio del Mar

 

Draft ITS phylogenetic tree showing N. fimbriata and N. palmeri species complexes 

Niebla palmeri x N. pulchribarbara (salazinic & fumaroprotocetraric acids, sekikaic acid, divaricatic acid trace, triterpenes). Niebla aff. palmeri
Mesa above (E of) San Antonio
del Mar, 52 m, Spjut & Sérusiaux 17018 No DNA

 

 

Niebla aff. palmeri
Mesa above (E of) San Antonio
del Mar, 52 m, Spjut & Sérusiaux 17019-4674A
 TLC: Sekikaic (+++) & divaricatic (+++) acids; unknown terpenes 5 (+), Rf class 3, 1 Rf 4 (+++), 1 Rf 5-6 (+) Jan 2016. Resembles N. arenaria. Occurring with N. josecuervoi 17014 & 17017, N. pulchribarbara 17014c & 17015, N. podetiaforma 17016, 17018 Niebla josecuervoi x pulchribarbara (salazinic & fumaroprotocetraric acids, sekikaic acid, triterpenes), and N. palmeri 17020 (sekikaic acid +++, divaricatic acid +).

 

Niebla palmeri
Rocky mesa E of San Antonio del Mar, 52 m, Spjut & Sérusiaux 17021, Jan 2016 (sekikaic acid +++, divaricatic acid +, triterpenes)

 

Niebla palmeri
Lava mesa above San Antonio del Mar, 52 m, Spjut & Sérusiaux 17020, Jan 2016.
(sekikaic acid +++, divaricatic acid +, triterpenes)

 

Niebla sp. aff. palmeri
(Niebla welwitschioides ineditus)

Bahía de San Quintín,
Laguna and peninsula, on beach sand, 30 m

Spjut & Sérusiaux 17061
Jan 2016

Niebla sp. aff. palmeri
(Niebla welwitschioides ineditus)

Bahía
de San Quintín,
Laguna and peninsula

Spjut & Sérusiaux 17062C and 17063
Jan 2016

 

 

Niebla sp. aff. palmeri
(Niebla welwitschioides ineditus)
Bahía
de San Quintín,
Laguna and peninsula

Spjut & Sérusiaux 17051

Jan 2016

 

 

Niebla sp. aff. palmeri
(Niebla welwitschioides ineditus)
South of El Rosario along road to Punta Baja, on sandy, wind-swept ridgeline, 80 m. Leavitt et al. 16-1022,
Dec 2016

 

Niebla sp. aff. palmeri

(Niebla welwitschioides ineditus)
South of El Rosario along road to Punta Baja, on sandy, wind-swept ridgeline, 80 m. Leavitt et al. 16-1004, Dec 2016

  

Niebla sp. aff. palmeri
(Niebla welwitschioides ineditus)

Ridge southwest of El Rosario, Spjut 10280B, Mar 1988

 

 

     Niebla palmeri is a species of fruticose lichen endemic to Baja California (Mexico), occurring infrequently in the coastal sage chaparral and chaparral-desert transition regions. It is recognized by its terricolous habit—in which it is not attached to the substrate by a common attachment point or holdfast—and by the lichen substance sekikaic acid (with triterpenes), or with additional depside of divaricatic acid (N. aff. palmeri). The thallus is much divided into stiff ribbon like branches that are often dilated terminally and irregularly fringed, torn and twisted; a flabellate form  shown above (N. aff. palmeri) is regarded here as distinct species, Niebla welwitschioides (ineditus)—for its different  habit and ecology with resemblance to the gymnosperm genus, Welwitschia (endemic to Namib desert in Angola and Namibia) and by having both divaricatic and sekikaic acids.  The typical species appears most similar to N. pulchribarbara and N. effusa; the former is distinguished by protocetraric acid; the latter by salazinic acid, which may hybridize with other species of Niebla.

     Niebla palmeri is variable in morphology, chemistry and phylogeny. A draft phylogenetic tree shown above also suggests a hybrid species complex involving N. effusa where their salazinic acid forms occur in close association at a location where other thalli may be found with various chemotype combinations in addition to sekikaic acid; these include hypoprotocetraric acid, divaricatic acid, protocetraric acid, and fumaroprotocetraric acid. Moreover, the phylogeny further includes a specimen with psoromic acid collected near Guerrero Negro identified Niebla sp. While most are treated as N. effusa, which is not supported by DNA phylogeny, some group together in microclades as shown above.  The phylogenetic trees in Spjut et al. (2020) and Jorna et al. (2021) include saxicolous species identified N. siphonoloba, N. fimbriata, and N. lobulata that can be resolved by taking into consideration phylogenomic data  from the type locality.    

Additional References: See Niebla