Plants of Africa

Mt. Kenya Rain Forest

Acacia savanna, Southern Highlands, Tanzania

©The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
December 2004; last updated Nov. 2007

Reports Related to Plant Procurement Activities on African Plants

Activity in Plant Parts as Related to Vegetation and Climate.  USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to A. S. Barclay, Nov. 6, 1979.  7 pp.

Climate, Vegetation and Availability of Some Active Plants in the Usambaras and Southern Highlands, Tanzania. USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to R. E. Perdue, Jr. , Dec. 16, 1977.  14 pp.

Comparison of Different Classifications on the Celastraceae in Africa with Discussions on the Status of Gymnosporia and Other Genera.  USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to R. E. Perdue, Jr., Nov. 7, 1974.  16 pp.

Feasible Samples for Field Work in East Africa: Plants Active from Kenya and Tanzania. USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to R. E. Perdue, Jr. , Sep 14, 1977.  7 pp.

New Cost Estimate for Field Work in Tanzania—Based on Plants Listed in Revised Foreign Want List Dated November 15, 1977. USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to R. E. Perdue, Jr. , March 23, 1978.  7 pp.

Plants Needed from Kenya and Tanzania—cf. Handwritten request Dated 5/12/77.  USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to R. E. Perdue, Jr. , May 13, 1977.  9 pp.

Response to Your Memorandum Dated September 21, Concerning Questions On Time Required To Conduct Field Work in Tanzania. USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to R. E. Perdue, Jr. , March 23, 1978.  8 pp.

Rough Cost Estimate for Laboratory Botanists to Collect M & H Plants from Tanzania. USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to R. E. Perdue, Jr. , July 15, 1977.  5 pp.

Some Examples of Limiting Factors Affecting Field Work Productivity In East Africa.  USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to R. E. Perdue, Jr. , Dec. 12, 1977.  5 pp.

Status on Plants Active from Kenya and Tanzania.  USDA Memorandum, R. W. Spjut to R. E. Perdue, Jr.,  July 21, 1977.  20 pp.

     Voucher specimens of plants from Kenya and Tanzania were identified by staff at the East African Herbarium in Nairobi; those from Ghana were identified by the late Albert Enti. The specimens were collected and photographed during 1972, 1973 and 1976.  The nomenclature follows the determinations made at that time except where updated changes have become available, and where current taxonomic concepts on families and genera can be applied.

Photos and/or Botanical-Pharmacological Summaries
on Antitutmor Active Plants

 

Abutilon longicuspe

Acacia mearnsii

Acacia melanoxylon

Acacia woodland
Kenya

 

Acalypha stuhlmannii

Acanthospermum glabratum
Asteraceae
Southern Highlands,
Tanzania
Spjut 3493

Acokanthera oppositifolia

Acridocarpus zanzabaricus, Malpighiaceae,
Jilore, Kenya

Acridocarpus zanzabaricus, Malpighiaceae,
Jilore, Kenya

Acridocarpus zanzabaricus, Malpighiaceae,
Jilore, Kenya

Adenium obesum, Apocynaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2604

Adenium obesum, Apocynaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2604


Afzelia quanzensis
Caesalpiniaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
 

 

 

Alangium chinense
Alangiaceae, Spjut & Ensor 3131, west margin of Mau Escarpment, Rift Valley Prov., Kenya

 

Alangium salviifolium

Kenya: Coast Prov. Taita District, Taveta Forest, 12 Jan 1970. Perdue & Kibuwa 10212

 

Albizia amara

Albizia grandibracteata
Mimosaceae
Rift Valley, Kenya
Perdue & Kibuwa 9329
12 Dec. 1967

Albizia grandibracteata
Mimosaceae
Rift Valley, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 3141

 

Albizia gummifera
Mimosaceae
Mt. Kenya

 

 

Allophylus pervillei
Sapindaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
understory shrub, 2-4 m high
Spjut 4563

 

Allophylus stachyanthus
Sapindaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
frequent to common shrub, 2-3 m high
Spjut 4569

 

Anclyobothrys tayloris, Apocynaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut 2708 (photo); also Spjut 3937

East African Herbarium Letter

Herbarium label

 

Annona senegalensis

Tanzania. Tanga Prov., Machui, 2 Jan 1967.

Summary of Activity data—Annona glauca



Apodytes dimidiata
Icacinaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4588
 


Apodytes dimidiata
Icacinaceae
Southern Highlands,
Tanzania
Spjut 3450


 

Araliopsis tabouensis

Balanites wilsoniana,
Jilore, Kenya,
 Spjut 3949

 

Boophone disticha
Amaryllidaceae
Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut 3457

Brachystegia spiciformis, Fabaceae, Jilore Forest Station, Kenya

Brachystegia Woodland, Zambia

Brucea antidysenterica
Simaroubaceae
Mt. Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 3016

Brucea antidysenterica
Simaroubaceae
Mt. Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 3016

 

Brysocarpus orientalis
Connaraceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4588

 

Calodendrum capense, Rutaceae, Spjut 2805. Karura Forest, Kenya

Canthium zanzibaricum
Rubiaceae
Shimba HIlls, Kenya
Spjut 4573

 

Capparis tomentosa, Climbing in Balanites
Spjut 3951
, between Galana River and Jilore Forest Station


 

Capparis sp.
Jilore, Kenya

 

Carissa tetramera
Apocynaceae, Kakoneni, Kenya

Carissa tetramera
Apocynaceae, Kakoneni, Kenya

Cassia abbreviata
Caesalpiniaceae
Shimba HIlls, Kenya
Spjut 4654

 

Cassia abbreviata
Caesalpiniaceae
Shimba HIlls, Kenya
Spjut 4654

Chenopodium procerum
Chenopodiaceae
Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut & Muchai 3480

 

Chlorophyton gallabentense
Liliaceae, Machakos, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2863

Chlorophyton gallabentense
Liliaceae, Machakos, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2863

Clausena anisata
Rutaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4556

 

Combretum aculeatum
Combretaceae
Mutumo-Mutha Rd, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 4651

Combretum aculeatum
Combretaceae
Mutumo-Mutha Rd, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 4651

Combretum illairii
Combretaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2611

Commiphora edulis ssp. boiviniana, Burseraceae, Spjut 3829, Jilore, Kenya

Commiphora campestris, ssp. glabrata, Burseraceae, Spjut 2788, Jilore, Kenya

Commiphora madagascariensis, Burseraceae, Spjut & Ensor 2869, Machakos Dist., Kenya

 

Crassocephalum mannii  Asteraceae, Mt. Kenya rain forest, Spjut 3963

Cremaspora triflora
Rubiaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4599

 

Crossopteryx febrifuga
Rubiaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4586

Crossopteryx febrifuga
Rubiaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4586

Croton macrostachyus
Euphorbiaceae
Mau Escarpment, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 3072

Croton pseudopulchellus
Euphorbiaceae
Cynometra forest, near Jilore, Kenya
Spjut 3902

Cynometra megalophylla
Caesalpiniaceae
Tree, single dominant of rain forest south of Accra, Ghana

Cynometra webberi
Caesalpiniaceae
Tree, single dominant of forest on both sides of road, near Jilore, Kenya

 

Cyperus rigidifolius, Cyperaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut 3008

Cyphostemma adenocaule, Vitaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2862, Machakos, Kenya

 


Cyphostemma kilimandscharica, Vitaceae, Spjut & Ensor 3142, Machakos, Kenya

Cyphostemma orondo, Vitaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2864, Machakos, Kenya

 

Dissotis sp.
Melastomataceae
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
 

 

 

Dracaena aletriformis, Dracaenaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya

 

Ekebergia benguelensis
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut 3454

Ekebergia benguelensis
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut 3454

Ekebergia benguelensis
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut 3454

 Elaeodendron (Cassine) schweinfurthianum
Celastraceae
Shimba HIlls, Kenya
Spjut 4598

 

Encephalartos hildebradtii, Cycadaceae, Jilore, Kenya

 

Erythrina abyssinica, Fabaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania

 


Euclea natalensis
Ebenaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4587, tree

Euclea natalensis
Ebenaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4587

 

Euclea natalensis
Ebenaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4587

 

Flacourtia indica
Salicaceae (Flacourtiaceae)
Shimba Hills, Kenya. Spjut 4590

 

Gardenia volkensii
Rubiaceae
Near Jilore, Kenya
December 1973

Gardenia volkensii
Rubiaceae
Near Jilore, Kenya
December 1973

 

Gnidia clutyoides, Thymelaeaceae, Tanzania, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Spjut 3495


Gnidia glauca
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut & Muchai 3455

 

Gnidia glauca
Thymelaeaceae
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut & Muchai 3455

Gnidia kraussiana
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut & Muchai 3494

Gnidia kraussiana
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut & Muchai 3494
variation in pubescence

Gnidia kraussiana
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut & Muchai 3494

 

Gnidia kraussiana
Southern Highlands,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut & Muchai 3494

 

Gnidia lamprantha, Ngoina Tea Estate, Kenya

 

Gnidia latifolia
Jilore, Kenya
 

Gnidia latifolia
Jilore, Kenya

Gnidia latifolia
Machakos, Kenya

 

Gnidia subcordata
Karura Forest, Nairobi,
Kenya, Spjut & Muchai 3960

Gnidia subcordata
Karura Forest, Stephen Muchai next to plant, Spjut & Muchai 3960

Gnidia subcordata
Thymelaeaceae
Karura Forest, Nairobi,
Kenya, Spjut & Muchai 3960

 

Gomphocarpus physocarpus Asclepiadaceae, Nakuru Dist., Kenya Spjut & Ensor 3186, Feb. 1983

Gomphocarpus physocarpus Asclepiadaceae, Nakuru Dist., Kenya Spjut & Ensor 3186, Feb. 1983

Grewia trichocarpa
Tiliaceae
Rift Valley Prov., Kericho Dist., Kaitui, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 3200

Grewia trichocarpa
Tiliaceae
Rift Valley Prov., Kericho Dist., Kaitui, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 3200

 

Grewia villosa
Tiliaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4650

 

Gymnosporia (Maytenus) buchananii
Celastraceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
 

Gymnosporia  (Maytenus) buchananii, slash,
Shimba Hills, Kenya
 

Gymnosporia (Maytenus) buchananii, logs,
Shimba Hills, Kenya, ~ 15 tons,
yielding ~8 grams
maytansine for cancer research

 

Gymnosporia (Maytenus)  heterophylla
Celastraceae
Southern Highlands, Tanzania
Spjut 3189

Gymnosporia gracilis (Maytenus mossambicensis), immature red capsules, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4550

 

Gymnosporia (Maytenus) putterlickioides
Celastraceae
Machakos, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2865

Gymnosporia (Maytenus) putterlickioides
Machakos, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2865

Gymnosporia (Maytenus) senegalensis
Celastraceae
Copperbelt Province, Zambia, Spjut 4451

Gymnosporia (Maytenus) senegalensis
Copperbelt Province, Zambia, Spjut 4451

 

Hagenia abyssinica
Rosaceae
Tree with drooping flowers,
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut & Muchai 3070

Hagenia abyssinica
Rosaceae
Spjut & Muchai 3070

Harrisonia abyssinica
Rutaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4585

 

Harrisonia abyssinica
Rutaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut 3952

 

Heeria mucronata
Anacardiaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut 3900

 

Heeria reticulata
Anacardiaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya

 

Hunteria zeylanica var. africana, Apocynaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2710, bushes right foreground.

Hunteria zeylanica var. africana, Apocynaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2710

Hypericum revolutum, Hypericaceae, Spjut 3199, Rift Valley Prov., Nakuru Dist., 5 miles NW of Londiani

Hypoxis sp., Hypoxidaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania, Spjut 3462

 

Hypoxis sp., Hypoxidaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania, Spjut 3461

Hypoxis cf. obtusa., Hypoxidaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania, Spjut 3458

East African Herbarium Letter

USDA ARS memos and letters

 

Hypoxis spp., Hypoxidaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania, plants with bulbs that vary in color of latex, from bright yellow to orange to white. See USDA ARS memos and letters


Jasmine sp. Oleaceae, Spjut 3469, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania

 

Juniperus phoenicea

Recollection data and old correspondence from Israel

Juniperus procera, Cupressaceae, Spjut & Ensor 3198, Rift Valley Prov., Nakuru Dist, Mt. Londiani

 

Juniperus proceraPerdue & Kibuwa 8230, Kikuyu Escarpment Forest, Kiambu Dist,  Kenya

 

Kanahia laniflora, Asclepiadaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2870, Machakos, Kenya

Landolphia kirkii
Jilore, low ground cover, Spjut & Ensor 2263

 

Landolphia kirkii
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut 2623 (photo), 3938

 

Landolphia sp.
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4593

Lantana camara, Verbenaceae, Machakos, Kenya

Leonotis nepetifolia, Lamiaceae, Karura Forest, Kenya, Spjut 2792

Lepidotrichilia volkensii
Mt. Kenya rain forest, Spjut & Ensor 3013

Lepidotrichilia volkensii
Mt. Kenya rain forest, Spjut & Ensor 3013

Manilkara sansibarensis, Sapotaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4592

Mariscus hemisphaericus, Cyperaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut 2634

 

Markhamia zanzibarica
Bignoniaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya

 

Maytenus undata
Celastraceae
Tree, Brachystegia forest S of Jilore, Kenya

 

Maytenus undata
Fruit: loculicidal capsule with yellow valves, orange aril covering seed

 

 

Myrsine africana
Myrsinaceae
Mt. Londiani, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 3143

 


Nectaropetalum kaesnaerii, Erythroxylaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2787, near Jilore, Kenya, 15 Dec. 1972, Coastal Kenya's 'White Christmas;'  at this time of year, the bush-land plants of this species all come into flower, simultaneously, lasting for about 7-10 days.

 

Ochna mossambicensis
Ochnaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4605

 

Ocotea usambarensis, Lauraceae, Mount Kenya rain forest

Opilia celtidifolia
Opiliaceae, Jilore,
Kenya. Spjut 2781

Pachystela brevipes, Sapotaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4597

Pavetta crebifolia
Rubiaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4584

 

Pavetta stenophylla
Rubiaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4562

Phoenix reclinata, Arecaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2636

 

Podocarpus milanjianus, Podocarpaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania, Spjut & Muchai 3006

 

     

Phyllanthus engleri
Euphorbiaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4553
Reports in Verdcourt and Trump (1969) indicate this is poisonous, 3 leaves have been reported to cause a man to die.
 

Phytolacca dodecandra flower
Phytolaccaceae
Montane grassland
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut 3464

 

Phytolacca dodecandra fruit—baccarium
Phytolaccaceae
Montane grassland
Mufindi, Tanzania

Piper umbellatum, Piperaceae, near Accra, Ghana, November 1972

 

 

Protea sp.
Proteaceae
Mufindi, Tanzania

Pseudobersama mossambicensis
Meliaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4571

Psorospermum febrifugum
Clusiaceae
Mufindia, Tanzania
Spjut 3453

Psorospermum febrifugum
Clusiaceae
Mufindia, Tanzania
Spjut 3453

 
 

Psychotria holtzii, Rubiaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4565

Psychotria lauracea
Rubiaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4591

Psychotria lauracea
Rubiaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4591

Psychotria oreophila
Rubiaceae, Mt. Kenya, south slopes, Spjut & Ensor 2991

Psychotria riparia
Rubiaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4600

 

Rapanea pulchra
Myrsinaceae
Mufindi, Tanzania
Spjut & Muchai 3452

 

Rauvolfia mombasiana, Apocynaceae, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut & Muchai 2777

Rauvolfia mombasiana, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut & Muchai 2777

Rauvolfia mombasiana, Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut & Muchai 2777

Rhodognaphalon schumanniana
Bombacaceae
Shimba HIlls, Kenya

Rhus natalensis, Mt Londiani, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 3190

Ritchiea capparoides, Capparaceae, Jilore, Kenya

Salacia madagascariensis
Celastraceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut 3807

Sarcostemma viminale, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut 3828,
Nov. 1973

Schizozygia coffaeoides, Apocynaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2777

Schizozygia coffaeoides, Apocynaceae, Jilore, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2777

 

Sclerochiton vogellii ssp. holstii, Acanthaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2610, Jilore, Kenya

Scolopia rhamniphylla
Salicaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4590
 

 

Solanum schumanniana, Solanaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania, Spjut & Muchai 3485

Spathodea campanulata, Bignoniaceae, Accra, Ghana

 

Strychnos henningsii, Loganiaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2635, Jilore, Kenya

Strychnos henningsii, Loganiaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2635, Jilore, Kenya

Strychnos henningsii, Loganiaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2635, Jilore, Kenya

Strychnos madagascariensis, Loganiaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2607, Jilore, Kenya

Strychnos madagascariensis, Loganiaceae, Spjut & Ensor 2607, Jilore, Kenya

 

Syzygium guineense, Myrtaceae, Jilore, Kenya

     

Tabernaemontana holstii
Apocynaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 2726

Tabernaemontana holstii
Apocynaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 2726

 

Tabernaemontana johnstonii
Apocynaceae
Mt. Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2994

Tabernaemontana johnstonii
Apocynaceae
Mt. Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2994

 

Teclea (Vepris) nobilis, Rutaceae, Spjut & Ensor 3231, Rift Valley Prov., 20 mi NW of Kericho, Kaitui

Terminalia brownii
Combretaceae
Machakos, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2860

Terminalia brownii slash
Combretaceae
Machakos, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2860

Terminalia brownii leaf-flower
Combretaceae
Machakos, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2860

 

Terminalia prunioides
Combretaceae
Jilore Lake, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2675

Terminalia prunioides
Combretaceae
Jilore Lake, Kenya

Terminalia prunioides
fruit—diclesium, Combretaceae
Jilore Lake, Kenya

 

Tetracera boiviniana
Dilleniaceae
Shimba HIlls, Kenya
 


 

Tetracera boiviniana
Dilleniaceae
Shimba HIlls, Kenya

Thilacium thomasii
Capparaceae
Shimba HIlls, Kenya, Spjut 4650

Thilacium thomasii
Capparaceae
Shimba HIlls, Kenya, Spjut 4650

Thunbergia lancifolia, Acanthaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania

Thunbergia lancifolia, Acanthaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania

Tinnea sp.
Lamiaceae, SW of Malindi, Kenya, Spjut & Ensor 2617

Tinnea sp.
Lamiaceae, SW of Malindi, Kenya, showing flower and diclesarium (fruit), Spjut & Ensor 2617

Toddalia asiatica, Rutaceae, Rift Valley Prov., Nakuru Dist., 5 miles NW of Londiani, Spjut & Ensor 3144

 

Uvaria acuminata
Perdue & Kibuwa 10003
Coast Prov., Kilifi Dist., Kenya

 

Uvaria lucida fruit—camaretum
Annonaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya, Spjut 4583

 

Vepris eugeniifolia
Rutaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4574

Vepris eugeniifolia
Rutaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2668

 

Withania sominifera, Solanaceae, Southern Highlands, Mufindi, Tanzania, Spjut 3463

 

Xeromphis nilotica
Rubiaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4607

Xeromphis nilotica
Rubiaceae
Shimba Hills, Kenya
Spjut 4607

Xeromphis nilotica
Rubiaceae, Kilifi Dist., Kakoneni, Kenya, Spjut 3953

Xerophyta spekei
Velloziaceae
Mitito Andei, Machakos Dist., Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2790

Xerophyta spekei
Velloziaceae
Mitito Andei, Machakos Dist., Kenya
Spjut & Ensor 2790

Ximenia americana
Olacaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 3817

The flowers of these specimens are typical of this species, compared to other specimens  from Jilore identified as X. caffra; see also East African Herbarium Letter

Ximenia americana
Olacaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 3817; see East African Herbarium Letter

Ximenia caffra
Olacaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 3823.  This is also treated as a variety of X. americana

 

Ximenia caffra
Olacaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 3823

East African Herbarium Letter

Additional collection numbers 3823, 3824, 3825, 3826.  All specimens collected by Spjut from Jilore Kenya were identified by the East African Herbarium as Ximenia caffra

 

Ximenia caffra
Olacaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 3823

 

 

Ximenia caffra
Olacaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 3823

 

 

Ximenia caffra
Olacaceae
Jilore, Kenya
Spjut & Muchai 3823
The flowers are clearly 4-parted without tufts of hairs on the lobes, although appearing pubescent between lobes.  The genus Olax, which lacks hairy petals, usually has 5 parted flowers.

 

 

Zanthoxylum (Fagara) macrophylla, Rutaceae, near Accra, Ghana

 

   

Examples of Discoveries Resulting from Recollections of African Plants for Antitumor Screening
and Related Publications 

Abraham D,J., J. Trojanek, H. P. Munzing, H. H. Fong and N. R. Farnsworth.  1971. Structure elucidation of maytenonic acid, a new triterpene from Maytenus senegalensis (Celastraceae).  J. Pharm. Sci. 60(7): 1085–1087.

Cao S., P. J. Brodie, J. S. Miller, F. Ratovoson, S. Randrianasolo, E. Rakotobe, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston.  2007.  Guttiferones K and L, Antiproliferative Compounds of Rheedia calcicola from the Madagascar Rain Forest.  J. Nat. Prod. 70: 686–688.

Cao S., P. J. Brodie, R. Randrianaivo, F. Ratovoson, M. Callmander, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston. 2007. Antiproliferative Xanthones of Terminalia calcicola from the Madagascar Rain Forest. J. Nat. Prod. 70: 679–681.

Cao S., A. Norris, J. S. Miller, F. Ratovoson, J. Razafitsalama, Rabodo Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston. 2007. Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins of Albizia gummifera from the Madagascar Rain Forest” J. Nat. Prod. 70: 361–366.

Cao S., L. Ranarivelo, M. Ratsimbason, S. Randrianasolo, F. Ratovoson, M. Andrianjafy, and D. G. I. Kingston.  2007.  Antimalarial Activity of Compounds from Sloanea rhodantha (Baker) Capuron var. rhodantha from the Madagascar Rain Forest. Planta Med. 72: 1438–1440.

Cao, S., A. Norris, J. S. Miller, F. Ratovoson, C. Birkinshaw, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, S. Rakotonandrasana, and D. G. I. Kingston. 2006.  Cytotoxic Compounds of Physena madagascariensis from the Madagascar Rain Forest, Nat. Prod. Res. 20: 1157–1163.

Cao S., M. M. Radwan, A. Norris, J. S. Miller, F. Ratovoson, M. Andrianjafy, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston.  2006. Cytotoxic Compounds from Didymochlaena sp. (Dryopteridaceae) from the Madagascar Rain Forest. J. Nat. Prod. 69: 284–286.

Cao S., J. K. Schilling, R. C Guza, J. S. Miller, R. Andriantsiferan9999a, V. E. Rasamison and D. G. Kingston. 2004.  Cytotoxic triterpenoids from Acridocarpus vivy from the Madagascar rain forest.
J Nat Prod. 67: 986–989. “
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the cytotoxic MeOH extract obtained from Acridocarpus vivy led to the isolation of five new triterpenoids, acridocarpusic acids A-E (1-5); three known triterpenoids, moronic acid (6), ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid; and two known flavonoids, 4',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone and 4',5-dihydroxy-3',7-dimethoxyflavone. The structures of the new compounds 1-5 were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation. Compound 3 showed significant cytotoxic activity in the A2780 assay, with an IC50 value of 0.7 microg/mL.”

Cao S. J. K. Schilling, J. S. Miller, A. Randrianasolo, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston. 2004.  “New Cytotoxic Alkyl Phloroglucinols from Protorhus thouvenotii” Planta Med. 70: 683-684.

Cao S., J. K. Schilling, J. S. Miller, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison and D. G. Kingston.  2004. Cytotoxic compounds from Mundulea chapelieri from the Madagascar Rainforest.
J. Nat. Prod. 67: 454–456.  “
Bioassay-guided fractionation of methanolic extracts of Mundulea chapelieri resulted in the isolation of two new flavonoids, isomundulinol (1) and 3-deoxy-MS-II (2), in addition to the eight known flavonoids 8-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone, MS-II, mundulinol, mundulone, munetone, rotenolone, rotenone, and tephrosin, and one known sesquiterpenoid, 8alpha-acetoxyelemol. The structures of the new flavonoids 1 and 2 were determined by 1D and 2D NMR experiments. All the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line; rotenolone and rotenone were the most potent compounds isolated, with IC(50) values of 0.5 and 0.7 microg/mL, respectively.”

Cassady, J. M., W. M. Baird and C-j. Chang.  1990. Natural products as a source of potential cancer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents.  J. Nat. Prod. 53: 23–41.  Reports on compounds isolated from Podocarpus milanjianus and Psorospermum febrifugum. Abstract—“Recent advances in the chemistry of novel bioactive natural products are reported. This research is directed to the exploration of plants with confirmed activity in bioassays designed to detect potential cancer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents. Structural work and chemical studies are reported for several cytotoxic agents from the plants Annona densicoma, Annona reticulata, Claopodium crispifolium, Polytrichum ohioense, and Psorospermum febrifugum. Studies are also reported based on development of a mammalian cell culture benzo[a]pyrene metabolism assay for the detection of potential anticarcinogenic agents from natural products. In this study a number of isoflavonoids and flavonoids with antimutagenic activity have been discovered.”

Cenci F. B., H. Louvandini, C. M. McManus, A. Dellporto, D. M. Costa, S. C. Araujo, A. P. Minho and A. L.  Abdalla. 2006. Effects of condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii on sheep infected naturally with gastrointestinal helminthes.  Vet Parasitol. 2006.

Chaturvedula V. S., A. Norris, J. S. Miller, F. Ratovoson, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison and D. G. Kingston.  2006.  Cytotoxic diterpenes from Cassipourea madagascariensis from the Madagascar rainforest. J. Nat. Prod. 69: 287–289.  “Bioassay-directed fractionation of ethanol extracts of the roots and leaves of the plant Cassipourea madagascariensis resulted in the isolation of the two new terpenoids cassipourol (1) and cassipouryl acetate (2) in addition to the three known compounds, 3beta,30-dihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (3), 30-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one (4), and combretol (5). The structures of the two new compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and chemical conversion. All the isolated compounds were tested against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line; the two diterpenes (1 and 2) showed moderate cytotoxic activity, while the three known compounds (3-5) were weakly active.”

Chaturvedula V.S., J. K. Schilling, J. S. Miller, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison and D. G. Kingston. 2004.  New cytotoxic terpenoids from the wood of Vepris punctata from the Madagascar Rainforest.
J. Nat. Prod. 67: 895–898. “
Continuation of the chemical examination of the cytotoxic constituents of the wood of Vepris punctata resulted in the isolation of the two new terpenoids 1 and 2 and eight known compounds, glechomanolide (3), isogermafurenolide, (E,E)-germacra-1(10),4,7(11)-triene, alpha-amyrin, lupeol, lupeyl acetate, taraxerol, and 3-epi-taraxerol, in addition to the alkaloids reported reported previously. The structures of the two new compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical modifications. All the isolated compounds were tested against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line; the four sequiterpenoids showed moderate cytotoxic activity, while the six triterpenoids were inactive.”

Chaturvedula, V.S., S. M. Hecht, Z. Gao, S. H. Jones X. Feng, and D. G. I. Kingston. 2004. “A New Ursane Triterpene from Monochaetum vulcanicum that Inhibits DNA Polymerase b Lyase” J. Nat. Prod. 67: 899-901.

Chaturvedula V.S., J. K. Schilling, J. S. Miller, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison and D. G. Kingston.  2002. New cytotoxic bis 5-alkylresorcinol derivatives from the leaves of Oncostemon bojerianum from the Madagascar rainforest.  J. Nat. Prod.: 1627–1632. “Bioassay-directed fractionation of a CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH extract of the leaves of Oncostemon bojerianum resulted in the isolation of eight new 5-alkylresorcinols, named oncostemonols A-H (1-8), and two known derivatives, (8'Z)-1,3-dihydroxy-5-[16'-(3' ',5' '-dihydroxyphenyl)-8'-hexadecen-1'-yl]benzene (9) and (8'Z)-1,3-dihydroxy-5-[14'-(3' ',5' '-dihydroxyphenyl)-8'-tetradecen-1'-yl]benzene (10). The structures of the new compounds 1-8 were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic interpretation and chemical derivatization. All the compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.”

Chaturvedula V.S., J. K. Schilling, J. S. Miller, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison and D. G. Kingston.  2003.  New cytotoxic oleanane saponins from the infructescences of Polyscias amplifolia from the Madagascar rainforest.  Planta Med. 69: 440–444. “Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the infructescences of Polyscias amplifolia resulted in the isolation of two new oleanolic acid saponins, polyfoliolides A (1) and B (2), in addition to the two known saponins 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyloleanolic acid (3) and 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranosyloleanolic acid (4). The structures of the two new compounds were established as 3-O-beta- D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyloleanolic acid (1) and 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (2) on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical conversions. All the isolated compounds showed weak cytotoxicity against A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, with IC50 values in the range 6.7 to 10.8 microg/mL.

Chaturvedula V.S., J. K. Schilling, J. S. Miller, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison and D. G. Kingston.  2002.  Two new triterpene esters from the twigs of Brachylaena ramiflora from the Madagascar rainforest.  J. Nat. Prod. 65: 1222–1224. “Bioassay-guided fractionation of a CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH extract of the small twigs of Brachylaena ramiflora var. ramiflora resulted in the isolation of the two new triterpene esters 1 and 2 and five known triterpenoids, alpha-amyrin palmitate (3), beta-amyrin palmitate (4), beta-amyrin acetate (5), lupeyl acetate (6), and lupeol (7). The structures of the two new compounds were established as kairatenyl palmitate (1) and hopenyl palmitate (2) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical conversions. All the isolated compounds showed weak cytotoxicity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line.”

Chaudhuri S. K., F. Fullas, D. M. Brown, M. C. Wani, M. E. Wall, L. Cai, W. Mar, S. K. Lee, Y. Luo, K. Zaw et al. 1995. J. Nat. Prod. 58: 1–9. “Isolation and structural elucidation of pentacyclic triterpenoids from Maprounea africana.  “Pentacyclic triterpenoids based on the taraxer-14-ene skeleton with a C-28 attached carboxylic acid group have been isolated from the roots of Maprounea africana. These compounds were identified as 1 beta,2 alpha-dihydroxyaleuritolic acid 2,3-bis-p-hydroxybenzoate [1], 2 alpha-hydroxyaleuritolic acid 3-p-hydroxybenzoate [2], 2 alpha-hydroxyaleuritolic acid 2,3-bis-p-hydroxybenzoate [4], aleuritolic acid 3-p-hydroxybenzoate [5], aleuritolic acid [6], and aleuritolic acid 3-acetate [7]. Compounds 1 and 2 are new triterpene esters. Compound 3 was previously reported as 7 beta-hydroxymaprounic acid 3-p-hydroxybenzoate [13]. However, based on detailed nmr studies, its structure has been revised.” 

Chin Y. W., W. P. Jones, T. J. Waybright, T. G. McCloud, P. Rasoanaivo, G. M. Cragg,  J. M. Cassady and A. D. Kinghorn.  2006.  Tropane aromatic ester alkaloids from a large-scale re-collection of Erythroxylum pervillei stem bark obtained in Madagascar.  J. Nat. Prod. 2006 Mar;69: 414–417. “Fractionation by pH zone-refining countercurrent chromatography of an extract of the stem bark of Erythroxylum pervillei, obtained on a kilogram scale in southern Madagascar, led to the isolation and characterization of four tropane aromatic ester alkaloids as minor constituents, namely, pervilleines G (5) and H (6) and cis-pervilleines B (7) and F (8). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation.”

Chin Y. W., L. K. Mdee, Z. H. Mbwambo, Q. Mi, H. B. Chai, G. M. Cragg, S. M. Swanson and A. D. Kinghorn. 2006. Prenylated Flavonoids from the Root Bark of Berchemia discolor, a Tanzanian Medicinal Plant.  J. Nat. Prod. 69(11): 1649–1652.

Dagne E,  A. A. Gunatilaka,  D. G. Kingston, M. Alemu, G. Hofmann and R. K.  1993. Two bioactive pterocarpans from Erythrina burana.  J. Nat. Prod. 56: 1831–1834.  “Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the CHCl3 extract of the bark of Erythrina burana afforded phaseollidin [1] and cristacarpin [2]. Both 1 and 2 exhibited moderate but selective activity towards DNA repair-deficient yeast mutants, whereas only 1 was found to be cytotoxic. 13C-nmr spectra of both compounds were assigned.”

Dagne E,  A. A. Gunatilaka,  D. G. Kingston, and M. Alemu.  1993. 4'-O-methylstephavanine from Stephania abyssinica.  J. Nat. Prod. 56: 2022-2025.

Goren A. C, B. N. Zhou and D. G. Kingston.  2003.  Cytotoxic and DNA damaging activity of some aporphine alkaloids from Stephania dinklagei.  Planta Med. 69: 867–868. “Six aporphine alkaloids, liriodenine, corydine, isocorydine, atherospermidine, stephalagine and dehydrostephalagine, were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of the stems of Stephania dinklagei. Liriodenine showed strong cytotoxic activity while corydine and atherospermidine showed DNA damaging activity. Dehydrostephalagine and atherospermidine were isolated from this plant for the first time.

Gunatilaka, A. A., G. Samaranayake, D. G. Kingston, G. Hoffmann and R. K. Johnson. 1992. Bioactive ergost-5-ene-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol derivatives from Pseudobersama mossambicensis.  J. Nat. Prod. 55: 1648–1654. Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the methyl ethyl ketone extract of Pseudobersama mossambicensis resulted in the isolation of ergosta-5,24(28)-diene-3 beta,7 alpha-diol [1], 24,28-epoxyergost-5-ene-3 beta,7 alpha-diol [2], and ergost-5-ene-3 beta,7 alpha,24,28-tetraol [3]. All three sterols showed selective activity towards DNA repair-deficient yeast mutants. The sterol 1 also showed cytotoxicity towards wild-type P-388 murine leukemia cells. The isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of these sterols are reported. The sterol 3 is most probably an artifact formed from 2 during the isolation process."

Habib A. M., K. S. Reddy, T. G. McCloud, C. J. Chang and J. M. Cassady. 1987.  New xanthones from Psorospermum febrifugum.  J. Nat. Prod. 50(2): 141–145.

Handa S. S., A. D. Kinghorn, G. A. Cordell and N. R. Farnsworth.  1983. Plant anticancer agents. XXVI. Constituents of Peddiea fischeri.  J. Nat. Prod. 46(2): 248–250.  “The in vitro P-388 lymphocytic leukemia activity of the chloroform-soluble fraction of the roots of Peddiea fischeri (Thymelaceaceae) was found to be due principally to the quinone 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (2,6-DMBQ), and to a lesser extent the two coumarins daphnoretin and umbelliferone. This is the first report of the occurrence of 2,6-DMBQ in the family Thymelaeaceae. The occurrence of 2,6-DMBQ in higher plants is reviewed.”

Harrigan G. G., A. A. Gunatilaka, D. G. Kingston,  G. W. Chan and R. K. Johnson. 1994.  Isolation of bioactive and other oxoaporphine alkaloids from two annonaceous plants, Xylopia aethiopica and Miliusa cf. banacea.  J. Nat. Prod. 57: 68–73.  “The oxoaporphine alkaloids oxophoebine [1] and liriodenine [2] have been isolated from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae). Both showed selective toxicity against DNA repair and recombination deficient mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. Three related but inactive compounds, oxoglaucine [3], O-methylmoschatoline [4], and lysicamine [5], were also isolated from this plant. Selective toxicity was also observed for 10-methoxyliriodenine (lauterine) [6] and 10-hydroxyliriodenine [7], two oxoaporphine alkaloids isolated from Miliusa cf. banacea (Annonaceae). The structure of 10-hydroxyliriodenine [7], a novel oxoaporphine, was determined by spectroscopic methods and chemical conversion to compound 6. The role of the bioactive oxoaporphine alkaloids as DNA topoisomerase inhibitors is discussed.”

Kingston, D. G. 1978.  Plant anticancer agents VII: Structural effects on cytotoxicity of bisindole alkaloids of voacamine type.  J. Pharm. Sci. 67: 272–274. “Structural effects on the cytotoxicity of bisindole alkaloids of the voacamine series were investigated with compounds isolated from various Tabernaemontana species and compounds synthesized specifically for this purpose. Activity is sensitive both to the position of attachment of the vobasane unit on the iboga moiety and to the presence of an N-methyl group on the vobasane unit.”

Kingston D. G., B. B. Gerhart, E. Ionescu, M. M. Mangino and S. M Sami. 1978.  Plant anticancer agents V: new bisindole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana johnstonii stem bark.  J. Pharm. Sci. 67: 249–251. “The isolation and structure elucidation of the three new bisindole alkaloids, gabunamine, tabernamine, and 19,20-epoxyconoduramine, from Tabernaemontana johnstonii stem bark are described. The isolation of the seven known alkaloids, conodurine, conoduramine, gabunine, isovacangine, ibogamine, pericyclivine, and perivine, from the same source also is noted. The alkaloids gabunamine, gabunine, and tabernamine showed significant cytotoxicity against the P-388 cell culture system.”

Kingston D. G., E. Ionescu and B. T. Li. 1977.  Plant anticancer agents IV: identification of tubotaiwine-N-oxide as a cytotoxic constituent of Tabernaemontana holstii. Lloydia 40: 215–216.

Kingston D. G., B. T. Li and E. Ionescu. 1977. Plant anticancer agents III: Isolation of indole and bisindole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana holstii roots.  J. Pharm. Sci. 66: 1135–38.  “Certain active antileukemic and cytotoxic fractions prepared from Tabernaemontana holstii roots were investigated, resulting in the isolation of the known indole alkaloids conoduramine, conodurine, coronaridine, gabunine, 19-oxocoronaridine, pericyclivine, perivine, and vobasine. Two new alkaloids were assigned the structures 19-oxoconodurine and 19-(2-oxopropyl)conodurine. Both gabunine and 19-(2-oxopropyl)conodurine showed significant inhibitory activity against P-388 cell culture. All of the alkaloids are reported for the first time from T. holstii; conodurine, conoduramine, gabunine, perivine, and pericyclivine are reported for the first time from any Tabernaemontana species.”

Kingston D. G. and T. Reichstein.  1974.  Cytotoxic cardenolides from Acokanthera longiflora Stapf. and related species.  J. Pharm Sci. 63: 462–464.

Kupchan S. M., D. R. Streelman and A. T. Sneden.  1980.  Psorospermin, a new antileukemic xanthone from Psorospermum febrifugum. J. Nat. Prod. 43: 296–301. “An ethanolic extract of Psorospermum febrifugum was fractionated with antileukemic activity in vivo in the P388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice and in vitro in the KB cell culture system used as a guide. The new antileukemic xanthone psorospermin 1 was isolated, and its structure was elucidated. The chlorohydrin of O-methylpsorospermin 2 was also isolated after treatment of the fraction containing psorospermin chlorohydrin 6 with diazomethane. Psorospermin 1 was demonstrated to have significant antitumor activity in the P388 in vivo system as well as cytotoxicity against the KB in vitro system.”

Kupchan S.M. , Y. Komoda, A. R. Branfman, A. T. Sneden, W. A. Court, G. J. Thomas, H. P. Hintz, R. M. Smith A. Karim, G. A. Howie, A. K. Verma, Y. Nagao, R. G. Dailey Jr., V. A. Zimmerly and W. C. Sumner Jr.  1977. The maytansinoids. Isolation, structural elucidation, and chemical interrelation of novel ansa macrolides. J. Org. Chem. 42: 2349–2357.

Kupchan S. M., E. J. LaVoie, A. R. Branfman, B. Y. Fei, W. M. Bright and R. F. Bryan. 1977. Phyllanthocin, a novel bisabolane aglycone from the antileukemic glycoside, phyllanthoside.  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99: 3199–3201.

Kupchan S. M., Y. Shizuri, R. L. Baxter and H. R. Haynes.  1977. Gnididione, a new furanosesquiterpene from Gnidia latifolia.  1977. J Org Chem. 42: 348–350.

Kupchan S. M. and R. M. Smith. 1977.  Maytoline, maytine, and maytolidine, novel nicotinoyl sesquiterpene alkaloids from Maytenus serrata (Hochst., ex A. Rich.) R. Wilczek.  J. Org. Chem. 42: 115–118.

Kupchan S. M., Y. Shizuri, W. C. Summer Jr., H. R. Haynes, A. O. Leighton and B. R. Sickles.  1976. Isolation and structural elucidation of new potent antileukemic diterpenoid esters from Gnidia species.
J. Org. Chem. 41: 3850–3853.

Kupchan S. M., Y. Shizuri, T. Murae, J. G. Swenny, H. P. Haynes, M. S. Shen, J. C. Barrick, A. F. Bryan, D. van der Helm and K. K.  Wu. 1976. Gnidimacrin and gnidimacrin 20-palmitate, novel macrocyclic antileukemic diterpenoid esters from Gnidia subcordata 1,2. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98(18): 5719–5720.

Kupchan S. M., R. W. Britton, J. A. Lacadie, M. F. Ziegler and C. W. Sigel. 1975.  The isolation and structural elucidation of bruceantin and bruceantinol, new potent antileukemic quassinoids from Brucea antidysenterica. J. Org. Chem. 40(5): 648–654.

Kupchan S. M., R. L. Baxter, M. F. Ziegler, P. M. Smith and R. F. Bryan. 1975. Podolide, a new antileukemic norditerpene dilactone from Podocarpus gracilior.  Experientia 31(2): 137–138.

Kupchan S. M., J. G. Sweeney, R. L. Baxter, T. Murae, V. A. Zimmerly and B. R. Sickles. 1975. Gnididin, gniditrin, and gnidicin, novel potent antileukemic diterpenoid esters from Gnidia lamprantha.  J. Am. Chem Soc. 97(3): 672–673.

Kupchan S. M., R. W. Britton RW, M. F. Ziegler and C. W. Sigel.   Bruceantin, a new potent antileukemic simaroubolide from Brucea antidysenterica. 1973. J. Org. Chem. 38(1): 178–179.

Kupchan S. M., A. J. Liepa and T. Fujita.  1973.  New phenolic Hasubanan alkaloids from Stephania abyssinica. 1973. J. Org. Chem. 38(1): 151–153.

Kupchan SM, Y. Komoda, W. A. Court, G. J. Thomas, R. M. Smith, A. Karim, C. J. Gilmore, R. C. Haltiwanger and R. F. Bryan.  1972.  Maytansine, a novel antileukemic ansa macrolide from Maytenus ovatus. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94(4): 1354–1356.

Kupchan S.M., J. L. Moniot, C. W. Sigel and R. J. Hemingway. 1971. Tumor inhibitors. LXV. Bersenogenin, berscillogenin, and 3-epiberscillogenin, three new cytotoxic bufadienolides from Bersama abyssinica.
J. Org. Chem. 36(18): 2611–2616.

Kupchan S. M., R. J. Hemingway and R. M. Smith. 1969. Tumor inhibitors. XLV. Crotepoxide, a novel cyclohexane diepoxide tumor inhibitor from Croton macrostachys.  J. Org. Chem.  34(12):3898–3902.

Kupchan S. M., W. K. Anderson, P. Bollinger, R. W. Doskotch, R. M. Smith, J. A. Renauld, H. K. Schnoes, A. L. Burlingame and D. H. Smith.  1969. Tumor inhibitors. XXXIX. Active principles of Acnistus arborescens. Isolation and structural and spectral studies of withaferin A and withacnistin. J. Org. Chem. 34(12): 3858–3866.

Kupchan S. M., P. S. Steyn, M. D. Grove, S. M. Horsfield and S. W. Meitner. 1969. Tumor inhibitors. XXXV. Myrsine saponin, the active principle of Myrsine africana L. J. Med. Chem. 12(1): 167–169.

Liu Z., H. G. Floss, J. M. Cassady and K. K. Chan.  2005. Metabolism studies of the anti-tumor agent maytansine and its analog ansamitocin P-3 using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Mass Spectrom. 40: 389–399. 

Murphy, B. T., S. Cao, A. Norris, J. S. Miller, F. Ratovoson, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston. 2006.  Cytotoxic Compounds of Schizolaena hystrix from the Madagascar Rainforest.  Planta Med. 72: 1235–1237.

Murphy, B. T., S. Cao, A. Norris, F. Ratovoson, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston. 2005.  “Cytotoxic Flavanones from Schizolaena hystrix from the Madagascar Rainforest.” J. Nat. Prod. 68: 417-419.

Pachuta R. R., R. G. Cooks, J. M. Cassady, P. Cong, T. G. McCloud TG and C. J. Chang. 1986.  Antineoplastic agents from higher plants: application of tandem mass spectrometry to xanthones from Psorospermum febrifugum. J. Nat. Prod. 49(3): 412–423.

Persinos G. J., M. W. Quimby, A. R. Mott, N R. Farnsworth, D. J. Abraham, H. H. Fong and R. N. Blomster. 1967.  Studies on Nigerian plants. 3. Biological and phytochemical screening of Lophira lanceolata, and the isolation of benzamide. Planta Med. 15(4): 361–365.

Pettit G. R., G. M. Cragg and S. B. Singh.  1987. Antineoplastic agents, 122. Constituents of Combretum caffrum.  J Nat Prod. 50(3): 386–391. “An investigation of the South African tree Combretum caffrum (Combretaceae) for antineoplastic constituents was conducted by employing the astrocytoma bioassay (9ASK). By this approach and a combination of solvent partition, steric exclusion, and adsorption chromatographic procedures, a substance designated combretastatin [1a] was isolated and found to display significant (71-90% astrocyte reversal at 1-100 micrograms/ml dose levels) astrocyte reversal and murine P-388 lymphocytic leukemia (PS) cell growth inhibition (ED50 0.011 micrograms/ml). The structure of (-)-combretastatin was elucidated by X-ray crystal structure analysis and confirmed by total synthesis. The absolute configuration at C-10 was assigned the R-configuration on the basis of Horeau esterification techniques. Other prominent, albeit PS-inactive, constituents were found to be 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid [2] and acacetin [3].”

Pezzuto J. M., S. M. Swanson and N. R. Farnsworth. 1984.  Evaluation of the mutagenic potential of endod (Phytolacca dodecandra), a molluscicide of potential value for the control of schistosomiasis.
Toxicol. Lett. 22(1): 15–20.  “
Extracts of the fruit of Phytolacca dodecandra (endod) demonstrate molluscicidal and other biological activities. Since this plant is indigenous to some countries where schistosomiasis is a common problem, it has been proposed that it may be socioeconomically feasible to employ endod as an aid in the control of this disease through its use to control the snail vector. As an initial step in the safety assessment of this substance, its mutagenic potential was determined utilizing Salmonella typhimurium strain TM677. The seeds and fruit of Phytolacca americana, also molluscicidal, were additionally evaluated for mutagenic potential. Using a variety of conditions, no mutagenic activity could be demonstrated for any of the extracts tested. Thus, subject to the results of future safety assessment, endod remains a viable candidate as a useful molluscicide.

Prakash Chaturvedula V.S., S. Sprague, J. K. Schilling and D. G. Kingston. 2003, 2005. New cytotoxic indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana calcarea from the Madagascar rainforest.  J. Nat. Prod. 66: 528–531. and 68: 1444.  “Bioassay-directed fractionation of the alkaloid portion of a CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH extract of Tabernaemontana calcarea resulted in the isolation of the three new cytotoxic indole alkaloids, 1-3, and the 12 known alkaloids voacangine (4), isovoacangine (5), coronaridine (6), 11-hydroxycoronaridine (7), voacristine (8), 19-epi-voacristine (9), isovoacristine (10), ibogamine (11), 10-methoxyibogamine (12), 11-methoxyibogamine (13), heyneanine (14), and 19-epi-heyneanine (15). The structures of the new compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic interpretation. All the compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.”

Pinney K. G., C. Jelinek, K. Edvardsen, D. J. Chaplin and G. R. Pettit.  2005. The discovery and development of the combretastatins.  In G. M. Cragg, D. G. I. Kingston and D. J. Newman, Anticancer Agents from Natural Products. Pp. 23–46. CRC Press. Summarizes the research on Combretum caffrum, citing 172 references.

Reynolds M., V. S. Chaturvedula, F. Ratovoson, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, R. C. Guza and D. G. Kingston.  2006. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Podocarpus madagascariensis from the Madagascar rainforest. Nat. Prod. Res. 20: 606–610.   “Bioassay-directed fractionation of an extract of the root and bark of Podocarpus madagascariensis resulted in the isolation of a new totarol diterpenoid (1) in addition to the three known cytotoxic diterpenoids 19-hydroxytotarol (2), totaradiol (3), and 4beta-carboxy-19-nor-totarol (4). The structure of the new compound 1 was established as methyl-13-hydroxy-14-isopropyl-9(11),12,14(8)-podocarpatriene-19-oate on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic interpretation and methylation of 4. All the compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.”

Sai Prakash C. V., J. M. Hoch and D. G. Kingston.  2002.  Structure and stereochemistry of new cytotoxic clerodane diterpenoids from the bark of Casearia lucida from the Madagascar rainforest.
J. Nat. Prod. 65: 100–107.  “
Bioassay-guided fractionation of a CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH extract of the bark of Casearia lucida resulted in the isolation of 11 new clerodane diterpenes, namely, casearlucins A-K (1-11), and three known clerodane diterpenoids, rel-(2S,5R,6R,8S,9S,10R,18S,19R)-diacetoxy-18,19-epoxy-6-hydroxy-2-(2xi-methylbutanoyloxy)cleroda-3,13(16),14-triene (12), rel-(2S,5R,6R,8S,9S,10R,18S,19R)-18,19-diacetoxy-18,19-epoxy-6-methoxy-2-(2xi-methylbutanoyloxy)cleroda-3,13(16),14-triene (13), and rel-(2S,5R,8S,9S,10R,18S,19R)-18,19-diacetoxy-18,19-epoxy-2-(2xi-methylbutanoyloxy)cleroda-3,13(16),14-triene (14). The structures of compounds 1-11 were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation. All compounds exhibited cytotoxicity activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line, but none of the six compounds selected for testing in multiple cell lines showed significant selectivity.”

Saleh A. A., G. A. Cordell and N. R. Farnsworth.  1980.  Potential anticancer agents. Part 13. Cytotoxic constituents of Acanthospermum glabratum (Asteraceae). J. Chem. Soc. [Perkin 1].5: 1090–1097.

Saleh A. A., G. A. Cordell and N. R. Farnsworth.  1976.  Isolation of 3,6-dimethoxy-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone from Acanthospermum glabratum. Lloydia. 39(6): 456–468.

Schwikkard S., B. N. Zhou, T. E. Glass, J. L. Sharp, M. R. Mattern, R. K. Johnson and D. G. Kingston.  2000. Bioactive compounds from Combretum erythrophyllum.  J. Nat. Prod. 2000 63: 457–460 and 1046. “A methanol extract of Combretum erythrophyllum showed inhibitory bioactivities in a yeast-based microtiter assay for DNA-damaging agents. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract yielded two known bioactive compounds, combretastatin A-1 and (-)-combretastatin, and two new bioactive glucosides, combretastatin A-1 2'-beta-D-glucoside (1) and combretastatin B-1 2'-beta-D-glucoside (2). The structures of the new compounds were assigned by (1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC spectra.”

Seo Y, J. Hoch, M. Abdel-Kader, S. Malone, I. Derveld, H. Adams, M. C. Werkhoven, J. H. Wisse, S. W. Mamber  J. M. Dalton and D. G. Kingston.  2002. Bioactive saponins from Acacia tenuifolia from the suriname rainforest.  J Nat Prod. 65: 170–174. “Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Acacia tenuifolia using the engineered yeast strains 1138, 1140, 1353, and Sc7 as the bioassay tool resulted in the isolation of the three new saponins 3, 5, and 6 and the three known saponins 1, 2, and 4. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral data on the intact saponins, and GC-MS analyses of the sugars. Compounds 1,2 and 5,6 showed cytotoxicity against mammalian cell lines.

Seo Y, J. M. Berger, J. Hoch, K. M. Neddermann, I. Bursuker, S. W. Mamber and D. G. Kingston.  2002.  A new triterpene saponin from Pittosporum viridiflorum from the Madagascar rainforest.  J. Nat. Prod.  65: 65–68.  “A novel triterpenoid saponin, pittoviridoside (1), which possesses an unusual 2,3,4-trisubstituted glycosidic linkage, has been isolated from Pittosporum viridiflorum using the engineered yeast strains 1138, 1140, 1353, and Sc-7 for bioactivity-guided fractionation. The structure of this compound was determined to be 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]-[alpha-D-arabinopyranosyl(1-->3)],[alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-angeloyl-22-senecioylolean-12-en-3beta,15alpha,16alpha,21beta,22alpha,28-hexol by spectral, chemical, and GC analyses. This compound showed weak cytotoxicity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line.

Tin-Wa M., N. R. Farnsworth, H. H. Fong, R. N. Blomster, J. Trojanek, D. J. Abraham, G. J. Persinos and O. B. Dokosi.  1971.  Biological and phytochemical evaluation of plants. IX. Antitumor activity of Maytenus senegalensis (Celastraceae) and a preliminary phytochemical investigation. Lloydia 34(1): 79–87. 
 

Valente L. M., A. A. Gunatilaka, D. G. Kingston DG, M. L. Patitucci and A. C. Pinto.  1997. A bioactive seco-rosane diterpenoid from Vellozia candida.  J. Nat. Prod. 60: 478–481.  “Bioassay-directed fractionation of the bioactive alcoholic extracts of Vellozia candida yielded a new 6,7-seco-rosane diterpenoid, candidalactone (1), which showed moderate toxicity toward DNA repair-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  Another new but inactive rosane diterpenoid, candidenodiol (3), was also obtained.”

Wall M. E., M. C. Wani, K. Gaetano, G. Manikumar, H. Taylor and R. McGivney.  1988.  Plant antimutagenic agents, 4. Isolation and structure elucidation of maesol, an inactive constituent of Maesa spp.  J. Nat. Prod. 51(6): 1226–1231. “Maesol, a novel dimeric phenol, was isolated from seeds of Maesa montana and Maesa indica. Maesol was shown to have the formula C28H42O4 with structure 1, a dimeric, symmetrical 1,12-bis(3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethyl-5,5'-dimethoxyphenyl)dodecane. It is the first compound with such structure to be isolated from plant material. Structure elucidation was based largely on 1H- and 13C-nmr techniques and comparison with a known synthetic isomeric dimer 3. Although crude extracts showed strong inhibition of 2-aminoanthracene activity against Salmonella typhimurium (T-98), the pure compound was inactive when tested for inhibition of the mutagenic activity of several mutagens.”

Wall M. E., M. C. Wani and H. Taylor.  1987. Plant antitumor agents, 27. Isolation, structure, and structure activity relationships of alkaloids from Fagara macrophylla.  J. Nat. Prod. 50(6): 1095–1099.
“The known alkaloids nitidine chloride [1] and 6-oxynitidine [2] and a new compound 6-methoxy-5,6-dihydronitidine [3] have been isolated from Fagara macrophylla. Compound 3 was the major product and was shown to be an artifact. The alkaloids 1 and 3 have been interconverted by treatment of 1 under basic conditions or 3 under acidic conditions. On sublimation 1 and 3 formed 8,9-dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxybenzo[c]phenanthridine [4] which could then be converted to 5,6-dihydronitidine [5]. The alkaloids 1 and 3 are about equipotent in P-388 mouse leukemia, giving high T/C values of 240-260% at doses of 30-50 mg/kg. The other compounds were inactive. The structural requirement for antitumor activity in the phenanthridine series is the ability to form a C-6 iminium ion.”

Williams, R. B., A. Norris, J. S. Miller, C. Birkinshaw, F. Ratovoson, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston.  2007. Cytotoxic Clerodane Diterpenoids and Their Hydrolysis Products from Casearia nigrescens from the Rainforest of Madagascar. J. Nat. Prod. 70: 206–209.

Williams, R. B., A. Norris, J. S. Miller, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston. Two New Cytotoxic Naphthaquinones from Mendoncia cowanii from the Rainforest of Madagascar. 2006.  Planta Med. 72: 564–566.

Williams, R. B., A. Norris, C. Slebodnick, J. S. Merola, J. S. Miller, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston. 2005. Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactones from Vernonia pachyclada from the Madagascar Rainforest. J. Nat. Prod. 68: 1371–1374.

Yoder B. J., S. Cao, A. Norris, J. S. Miller, F. Ratovoson, R. Andriantsiferana, V. E. Rasamison, and D. G. I. Kingston. 2007.  Tambouranolide, a New Cytotoxic Hydroxybutanolide from a Tambourissa sp. (Monimiaceae). Nat. Prod. Res. 21: 37–41.
 

Other Relevant References

Verdcourt, B. and Trump, E. C. Common poisonous plants of East Africa. Collins, London. 1969.